L&M CH.7

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chuchi
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24216
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L&M CH.7
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2010-06-25 00:35:29
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Mazur Psychology
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L&M CH.7
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  1. In a cumulative record, fast responding is indicated by a ____________, and no responding is indicated by a ___________.
    steep line, horizontal line
  2. Responding on a fixed-ratio schedule typically shows a(n) __________ pattern, and responding on a fixed-interval schedule typically shows a(n) pattern.
    stop-and-go, accelerating
  3. Responding on ____________ schedules is usually rapid and steady, and responding on __________ schedules is usually slower and steady.
    variable ratio, variable interval
  4. ____________ behavior is controlled by the schedule of reinforcement; _____________ behavior is controlled by instructions subjects are given or form on their own.
    contingency-shaped, rule-governed
  5. IRT reinforcement theory states that longer interresponse times are more likely to be reinforced on ____________ schedules, but bursts of responding are more likely to be reinforced on __________ schedules.
    variable-interval, variable-ratio
  6. In behavioral marital therapy, a written agreement between spouses is called a ____________.
    contingency contract
  7. When a reinforcer is delivered after every n responses, where n is the size of the ratio, this is referred to as: (Type of reinforcement schedule)
    Fixed – ratio schedule
  8. When the amount of time that must pass before a reinforcer is stored varies unpredictably from reinforcer to reinforcer, this is referred to as: (Type of reinforcement schedule)
    Variable-interval schedule
  9. A hunter sets a trap for rabbits in the nearby woods. After a short wait, the hunter finally sees the rabbit and closes the trap for the capture. What kind of reinforcement schedule is this hunter most likely to be on? (The reinforcement schedule is not predictable)
    Variable interval schedule
  10. According to Skinner, a reinforcement schedule is a rule that states under what conditions a reinforcer will be delivered. (Types of reinforcement schedules)
    True
  11. Another type of reinforcement schedule is called the differential reinforcement of low rates schedule. (Reinforcement based upon low rate of responding)
    True
  12. The hardest type of behavior to extinguish is that based upon continuous reinforcement. (Partial Reinforcement difficult to extinguish)
    False
  13. Skinner developed this device to plot the moment-by-moment behaviors of his subjects. This device is called a _______.
    Cumulative recorder
  14. The differential reinforcement of high rates schedule is one in which a certain number of responses must occur within a fixed amount of time before a reinforcer is administered.
    True
  15. In a token economy, the principle of conditioned reinforcement is used to improve or promote behavior changes in a group.
    True
  16. Extinction is more rapid after continuous reinforcement than after a schedule of intermittent reinforcement.
    True
  17. rule that states under what conditions a reinforcer will be delivered
    Reinforcement schedule
  18. device that records responses, with time on horizontal axis and responses on vertical axis
    Cumulative recorder
  19. (the most researched)
    Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules
  20. delivers a reinforcer after a fixed number of responses
    Fixed-Ratio (FR)
  21. delivers a reinforcer after a variable & unpredictable number of responses
    Variable-Ratio (VR)
  22. first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed is reinforced
    Fixed-Interval (FI)
  23. reinforcer becomes available after variable & unpredictable time intervals
    Variable-Interval (VI)
  24. Extinction is more rapid after CRF than after a schedule of intermittent reinforcement
    The Partial Reinforcement Effect
  25. o Discrimination Hypothesis
    o Generalization Decrement Hypothesis
    Explanations for The Partial Reinforcement Effect
  26. · Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
    · Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)
    · Concurrent Schedule
    · Chained Schedule
    Other Reinforcement Schedules
  27. · Reinforcer Quality
    · Rate of Reinforcement
    · Delay of Reinforcement
    · Response Effort
    · Amount of Reinforcement
    · Level of Motivation
    Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules
  28. Behavior that is controlled by the schedule of reinforcement or punishment.
    Contingency-Shaped Behaviors
  29. Behavior that is controlled by a verbal or mental rule about how to behave.
    o Animals are not capable
    Rule-Governed Behaviors
  30. Humans can do
    Contingency-Shaped Behaviors & Rule-Governed Behaviors
  31. refers to pause after reinforcement on FR schedules
    Postreinforcement Pause
  32. o Fatigue Hypothesis
    o Satiation Hypothesis
    o Remaining-Response Hypothesis
    - Best scientific explanation of postreinforcement pause
    • Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules:
    • Three Theories
  33. The principle of conditioned reinforcement to improve behavior
    *IDEA- they have some tangible proof
    Token Economy
  34. Focus—Worker productivity, supervisor effectiveness, quality improvement, and customer satisfaction
    Organizational Behavior Management (IO Psychology)
  35. This is a written agreement that lists the behaviors required of each party and the reinforcers
    Contingency Contract
  36. Integrative Couple Therapy
    High success rate
  37. Acceptance phase then
    behavioral component
  38. accepting partner is not perfect (high positive outcome)
    acceptance phase
  39. The four simple reinforcement schedules are
    fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval.
  40. Extinction susceptibility of a given behavior may differ as a result of
    a reinforcement schedule
  41. There are other forms of reinforcement schedules based upon the rate of
    responding
  42. differential reinforcement of low rates and differential reinforcement of high rates schedules
    reinforcement schedules based upon the rate of responding
  43. concurrent and chained schedules
    combination of schedules
  44. There are many factors which affect the performance on a given ________ such as quality and rate of reinforcement.
    reinforcement schedule
  45. The principles of reinforcement have a wide range of application in the fields of
    education, management, and behavior therapy.
  46. have been shown to be effective in changing some behaviors
    Token economies
  47. are often used in marital behavior therapy to help partners increase the exchange of positive reinforcers.
    Contingency contracts

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