Criminal Justice Midterm

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  1. a system of government in which power is divided between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments
  2. a complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose actions are directed toward goals and are influenced by the environment within which they function
  3. a mutual transfer of resources: a balance of benefits and deficits that flow from behavior based on decisions about the values and costs of alternatives
  4. a defendant's plea of guilty to a criminal charge with the reasonable expectation of receiving some consideration from the state for doing so, usually a reduction of the charge.  The defendant's ultimate goal is a penalty lighter than the one formally warranted by the charged offense
    plea bargain
  5. the authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, using instead one's own judgement; allows for individualization and informality in the administration of justice
  6. a screening operation; a process by which criminal justice officials screen out some cases while advancing others to the next level of decision making
    filtering process
  7. a system consisting of a separate judicial system for each state in addition to a national system. Each case is tried in a court of the same jurisdiction as that of the law or laws broken
    dual court system
  8. the process of determining whether the defendant is guilty
  9. the physical taking of a person into custody on the grounds that there is reason to believe that he or she has committed a criminal offense.  Police may use only reasonable physical force.  The purpose is to hold the accused for a court proceeding
  10. a court order authorizing police officers to take certain actions, for example, to arrest suspects or to search premises
  11. a document charging an individual with a specific crime. It is prepared by a prosecuting attorney and presented to a court at a preliminary hearing
  12. a document returned by a grand jury as a "true bill" charging a individual with a specific crime on the basis of a determination of probable cause as presented by a prosecuting attorney
  13. serious crimes usually carrying a penalty of death or of incarceration for more than one year
  14. offenses less serious and usually punishable by incarceration of no more than a year, probation, or intermediate sanction
  15. a model of the criminal justice system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime; it emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality, and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders
    crime control model
  16. a model of the criminal justice system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to ensure that criminal justice decisions are based on reliable information; it emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and formal decision-making procedures
    due process model
  17. a difference between groups that may either be explained by legitimate factors or indicate discrimination
  18. differential treatment of individuals or groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or economic status, instead of on their behavior or qualifications
  19. offenses that are wrong by their very nature
    mala in se
  20. offenses prohibited by law but not wrong in themselves
    mala prohibita
  21. an offense against persons or property, committed primarily by members of the lower class. Often referred to as "street crime" or "ordinary crime," this type of offense is the one most upsetting to the public
    visible crime
  22. criminal offenses committed through opportunities created in a legal business or occupation
    occupational crimes
  23. a framework for the perpetuation of criminal acts - usually in fields such as gambling, drugs, and prostitution - providing illegal services that are in great demand
    organized crime
  24. moving the proceeds of criminal activities through a maze of businesses, banks, and brokerage accounts so as to disguise their opinion
    money laundering
  25. offenses involving a willing and private exchange of illegal goods or services that are in strong demand.  Participants do not feel they are being harmed, but these crimes are prosecuted on the ground that society as a whole is being injured
    crimes without victims
  26. an act, usually done for ideological purposes, that constitutes a threat against the state (such as treason, sedition, or espionage); also describes a criminal act by the state
    political crime
  27. offenses that involve the use of one or more computers
    cyber crimes
  28. a metaphor that emphasizes the dangerous dimension of crimes that are never reported to the police
    dark figure of crime
  29. an annually published statistical summary of crimes reported to the police, based on voluntary reports to the FBI by local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies
    Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
  30. a reporting system in which the police describe each offense in a crime incident, together with data describing the offender, victim, and property
    National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
  31. interviews of samples of the U.S. population conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to determine the number and types of criminal victimizations  and thus the extent of unreported as well as reported crime
    National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS)
  32. a field of criminology that examines the role the victim plays in precipitating a criminal incident and also examines the impact of crimes on victims
  33. a school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from free will, demands responsibility and accountability of all perpetrators, and stresses the need for punishments severe enough to deter others
    classical criminology
  34. a school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from social, biological, and psychological factors.  It argues that punishment should be tailored to the individual needs of the offender
    positivist criminology
  35. having factors thought to bring about criminal behavior in an individual
  36. explanations of crime that emphasize physiological and neurological factors that may predispose a person to commit crimes
    biological explanation
  37. explanations of crime that emphasize mental processes and behavior
    psychological explanations
  38. explanations of crime that emphasize as causes of criminal behavior the social conditions that bear on the individual
    sociological explanations
  39. theories that blame crime on the existence of a powerless lower class that lives with poverty and deprivation and often turns to crime in response
    social structure theories
  40. a breakdown or disappearance of the rules of social behavior
  41. theories that see criminality as normal behavior. Everyone has the potential to become a criminal, depending on (1) the influences that impel one toward or away from crime and (2) how one is regarded by others
    social process theories
  42. theories that see criminal behavior as learned, just as legal behavior is learned
    learning theories
  43. the theory that people become criminals because they encounter more influences that view criminal behavior as normal and acceptable than influences that are hostile to criminal behavior
    theory of differential association
  44. theories holding that criminal behavior occurs when the bonds that tie an individual to society are broken or weakened
    control theories
  45. theories emphasizing that the causes of criminal behavior are not found in the individual but in the social process that labels certain acts a deviant or criminal
    labeling theories
  46. theories that assume criminal law and the criminal justice system are primarily a means of controlling the lower classes, women, and minorities
    critical criminology
  47. theories that view crime as the result of conflict in society, such as conflict between economic classes caused by elites using law as a means to maintain power
    social conflict theories
Card Set:
Criminal Justice Midterm
2013-10-22 20:48:55
Rutgers Camden

Chapters 1-7
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