Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
2010-06-21 02:33:10
Cognitive Psychology

Psychology 3350
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  1. Semantic Memory
    Organized knowledge about the world

    ex. Mangua is the capital of Nicaragua
  2. Episodic Memory
    It contains information about events that happen to one
  3. Category
    A set of objects that belong together

    ex. fruit
  4. Concept
    Mental representations of objects of a category
  5. Feature Comparison Model
    Concepts are stored in memory according to a list of necessary features or characteristics

    Ex.Cats- has fur, has four legs, meows, has a tail, chases mice

    Ex.A poodle is a dog, squirrel is an animal, a flower is rock, carrot is a vegetable

    Does not explain relations between item but shows similarities and list of features and assumes everything is independant of each other
  6. Defining Features
    Attributes that are necessary to the meaning of the item

    Ex. Robin- it is living and has feathers and a red breast
  7. Characteristic Features
    Attributes that are merely descriptive

    Ex. Robin- it flies, perches on trees and small
  8. Sentence Verification feature/For FCM
    People use simple sentences and must use semantic knowledge to determine whether the sentence is true or false

    Reserchers use reaction time
  9. Typicality Effect
    People make decisions faster when an item is a typical member of a category, rather than an unusual member

    Ex. Carrot is a vegatable/Rutabaga is a vegetable
  10. Prototype
    An item that is most typical and representative of the category
  11. Prototype Approach
    • -Deciding if an item belongs with a catagory by comparing that item with a prototype
    • -If the item is similar to the prototype, one can say that the item is in the category
  12. Prototypicality/Graded Structure
    Degree to which it is prototypcial

    Ex. Robin and Sparrow are prototypical

    Ex. Ostriches and Penguins are nonprotypes
  13. Charateristics of Prototypes
    -Supplied as examples of a category

    -Prototypes are judged more quickly after semantic priming- response after item has similar meaning

    -Prototypes share attributes in a family resemblance categoryi