Chapter 6--Urinary System

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jchip524
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242275
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Chapter 6--Urinary System
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2013-12-08 09:16:17
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urinary system
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Chapter 6 Urinary system
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  1. arteriole
    small artery
  2. calciferol
    active form of viatmin D, secreted by the kidney
  3. calyx (calix) (plural calyces or calices)
    cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
  4. catheter
    tube for injecting or removing fluid
  5. cortex
    outer region of an organ
  6. creatinine
    nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
  7. creatinine clearance
    measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing creatinine from the blood
  8. electrolyte
    chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water; necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. kidneys maintain proper balance of this element and water in the blood
  9. erythropoietin (EPO)
    hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
  10. filtration
    process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter
  11. glomerular capsule
    enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. aka Bowman's capsule. collects all the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus
  12. glomerulus (plural glomeruli)
    tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood cells) in the kidney
  13. hilum
    depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
  14. kidney
    one of two bean shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the blood stream to form urine
  15. meatus
    opening or canal
  16. medulla
    inner region of an organ
  17. medullary cavity
    long bones in the innermost part containing red and yellow marrow
  18. nephron
    combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kideny; functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself; aprox. 1 million in each kidney
  19. nitrogenous waste
    substance containing nitrogen excreted in the urine; ex: urea, uric acid, and creatinine
  20. potassium (K+)
    electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that proper concentration is maintained within the blood. essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses
  21. reabsorption
    process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the blood stream
  22. renal artery
    blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
  23. renal pelvis
    central collecting region in the kidney
  24. renal tubule
    microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
  25. renal vein
    blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
  26. renin
    hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
  27. sodium (Na+)
    electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions
  28. trigone
    triangular area in the urinary bladder
  29. urea
    major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
  30. ureter
    one of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  31. urethra
    tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
  32. uric acid
    nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
  33. urinary bladder
    hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine
  34. urination (voiding)
    process of expelling urine; aka micturition
  35. cali/o
    calyx; cup shaped
  36. calic/o
    calyx; cup shaped
  37. cyst/o
    urinary bladder
  38. glomerul/o
    glomerulus
  39. meat/o
    meatus
  40. nephr/o
    kidney
  41. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  42. ren/o
    kidney
  43. trigon/o
    trigone (region of the bladder)
  44. ureter/o
    ureter
  45. urethr/o
    urethra
  46. vesic/o
    urinary bladder
  47. albumin/o
    albumin (a protein in the blood)
  48. azot/o
    nitrogen
  49. bacteri/o
    bacteria
  50. dips/o
    thirst
  51. kal/o
    potassium
  52. ket/o
    ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
  53. keton/o
    ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
  54. lith/o
    stone
  55. natr/o
    sodium
  56. noct/o
    night
  57. olig/o
    scanty
  58. -poietin
    substance that forms
  59. py/o
    pus
  60. -tripsy
    crushing
  61. ur/o
    urine (urea)
  62. urin/o
    urine
  63. -uria
    urination, urine condition
  64. glomerulonephritis
    inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney
  65. interstitial nephritis
    inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules
  66. nephrolithiasis
    kidney stones (renal calculi)
  67. nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)
    group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine
  68. polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
    multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney
  69. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma
  70. renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
    cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
  71. renal failure
    decrease in excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration fuction
  72. renal hypertension
    high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
  73. Wilms tumor
    malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood
  74. bladder cancer
    malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
  75. diabetes insipidus (DI)
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH
  76. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects
  77. blood urea nitrogen
    measurement of urea levels in blood
  78. creatinine clearance
    measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney
  79. CT urography
    X-ray images obtained using computed tomography show multiple cross-sectional and other views of the kidney

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