Organization Behaviour: Chapter 4

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Organization Behaviour: Chapter 4
2013-10-22 23:04:03
Organization Bahviour

Chapter 4 - Theories of Motivation definition
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  1. Motivation
    The intensity direction, and persistence of effort a person shows to reaching a goal
  2. Theory X
    The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
  3. Theory Y
    The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
  4. Intrinsic Motivators
    A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
  5. Extrinsic Motivators
    Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
  6. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
  7. ERG theory
    A theory that posits 3 groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
  8. motivation-hygiene theory
    A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
  9. McClelland's theory of needs
    Achievement, power, and affiliation are 3 important needs that help explain motivation
  10. need for achievement
    the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
  11. need for power
    the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
  12. need for affiliation
    the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  13. expectancy theory
    the theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them
  14. expectancy
    the belief that effort is related to performance
  15. instrumentality
    the belief that performance is related to rewards
  16. valence
    the value or importance an individual places on a reward
  17. goal
    what an individual is trying to accomplish
  18. management by objectives (MBO)
    an approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
  19. equity theory
    individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities
  20. distributive justice
    the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  21. organizational justice
    an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and international justice
  22. procedural justice
    the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  23. international justice
    the quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager
  24. cognitive evaluation theory
    offering extrinsic rewards (pay) for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation
  25. self-concordance
    the degree to which a person's reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the person's interests and core values
  26. operant conditioning
    a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
  27. continuous reinforcement
    a desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated
  28. intermittent reinforcement
    a desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating, but not every time it is demonstrated
  29. fixed-interval schedule
    the reward is given at fixed time intervals
  30. variable-interval schedule
    the reward is given at variable time intervals
  31. fixed-ratio schedule
    the reward is given at fixed amounts of output
  32. variable-ratio schedule
    the reward is given at variable amounts of outputs