psych 0-2

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pugsrule915
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242331
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psych 0-2
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2013-10-23 07:10:15
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psych
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  1. Infancy 0-2 yrs
    • • Triples avg weight in 2 yrs
    • • Length grow by 50% in 1 yr
    • • Cepholacaudal growth trend- head  tail growth
    • • Proximal-distal Trend- near to far
    • • Gradual growth trend after 2 until puberty
    • • At puberty- far to near
    • • Even growth of head circumference
    • o Fast head growth- autism
    • • Increase in fat
    • o Peak at 9 months, then build muscle (bc increase in movement)
    • o Build until adolescence
  2. Brain
    • • High in plasticity- bc not lateralized (specialization)
    • o Changes and adapts better
    • o With increase in lateralization, decrease in plasticity
    • o Younger the brain the better it adapts and develops better if damaged
    • o Need stimulation for specialization
    •  Under stimulation bad
    •  Over stimulation bad though (causes pruning too)
    • • Our brains become more specailzed as we grow up
    • • Kids need high in fat for brain (myelination of sheaths)
    • • Parts of brain not stimulated prune away  allowing the parts that need nurtirents to get it
    • • Langauge in first few years is considered sensitive period
    • o Those who learn dual languages when young then easier to learn new languages
    • Stimulation
    • • Under stimulation bad
    • • Over stimulation bad too (causes pruning too)
  3. Summary
    • • Appropriate stimulation
    • • Healthy fats
    • • Surges of growth (growth spurts)
    • • Surge (3-4 months)
    • o Vision
    • o Emotional develioment
    • • Surge (8-9 months)
    • o Physical development
    • o Delayed bc we are putting babies to sleep on the backs instead of stomachs now
    •  Reduces SIDS now
    • • Surge (12 months)
    • o Take first step
    • • Surges (18-24 months)
    • o Spurts
    • o Start in langague
    • o In bursts before 2 yrs then takes off
    •  There is probably a sensitive period
    • Motor development
  4. Gross Motor Skills
    • • Large muscle groups, stand on legs
    • • At 10 w (2 months) hold head up
    • • 4-6 months move from stomach to back or back to stomach
    • • 8 mo- sitting up
    • • End of 1st yr- pull up (bear weight on legs)/ walk
    • o Usually have muscle strength before balance
    • o Surge after start walking (start running)
    • • Propel body
  5. Fine motor Skills
    • • Small muscles
    • • Start from palmar reflex  to voluntary grasp
    • • Full hand grasp (unlar grasp)
    • • 3-4 to 6 months both full hand grasp
    • • 5-6 months ulnar grasp and swtich item to other hand
    • • End of 1 yr Pincer grasp- pinch and pick up item
    • • 1-2 practice grasping (holding spoon)
  6. Malnourishment
    • • 1/3 of world’s children malnourished
    • • 16% children in US malnourished
  7. Kwarshiokoff’s Syndrome
    • o Most severe
    • o Low protein
    • o Rare in US
    • o Bloated stomach (inflammation) – can cause death
    • o Not growing
  8. Marasmus
    • o In US
    • o Little bits of protein
    • o Not growing
    • o Causes
    •  Cognitive issues
    • • Learning disabilityies
    • • Low IQ
    •  Anxiety/ stress disorders
    • • (damage to amygudla) similar to people with PTSD
    • • Lack of coping
    •  Short stature
    •  Obesity
    • • Damaged to eating center of brain
    • • (never feel full)
  9. Non organic Faluire to thrive
    • o No medical or biological reason
    • o Have nutritious food but the body isn’t using it
    •  Not intestional problem or gastric
    • o Bc of caregiver- Post- Partum Depression
    • o Under a lot of stress
    • o Depression in infant
    •  Stop eating/ growing
    •  Neglected or abused
    • o Treatment for mom, not baby
    • o If continue to 18months then can get marasmus
    •  If turn it around then baby okay
  10. Piaget- Cognitive Development
    • • 1st to say kids are active learners
    • • Based on human adaptation
    • 1. Assimilation
    • 2. Accommodation
    • a. Baby usually all accommodation (everything new)
  11. Sensori-motor (6 sub stages)
    • 1. Reflexive (0-1 month)
    • 2. Primary Circular Reaction (1-4 mo)
    • ------ I can choose to do this or not  first time by accident
    • ------When loose reflex
    • 3. Secondary Circular Reactions 4-8mo
    • ------By accident
    • ------Arm hit mobile and then keep going in circular movement to hit it again
    • ------Don’t have object permanence yet
    • ----------Object behind back is gone
    • 4. Coordination of Circular Reactions (8-12mo)
    • ------Start to understand cause and effect (manipulating you)
    • ------Start to put things together- if you put object under blanket and then pick up blanket and get toy
    • ------Then think toy disappeared
    • 5. Tertiary Circular Reaction (12-18 mo)
    • ------Look in other places, look under couch even if you didn’t put it in
    • ------Want to explore with toys bc don’t know how to play with it
    • ------Break toys- no intentional bc dont know what will happen if throw or stand
    • 6. Mental Conservation (18-24 mo)
    • ------More cognitive development
    • ------Picture home or mom and miss it
    • ------Everything take off after this
    • ------Have cognitive thought
  12. Vyotsky
    • • Active learners (learning not done to them)
    • • Everything that is learned is socially mediated
    • o Based on culture
    • o Language
    • o Zone of proximal development
    •  Range of tasks a child can do when the adult intervenes
    • • Mom put hand on button of toy fir music to come out
    • • Continuous but agrees that first 2 years important (sensitive period)
    • Pragmatics- how we can become conversationalists
    • o Think they do everything very well and clap
    • • Shame
    • o This develops into guilt, empathy, sympathy
    • o Cry and cover face, turn around
    • o Don’t want kids to have too much shame
    • o Guilt
    •  When someone else is hurt
    •  Usually between 3-5 yrs
  13. Freud
    • 1. Oral Stage (0-1 yr)
    • ------Feeding Feels good
    • ------we bond with mothers first bc It is a biological pleasure (feeding)
    • ------successfully able to wean (delay the id)
    • ----------preoccupied with putting things in mouth
    • ----------over attached to mom
    • ---------------chewing finger nails, smoking
    • 2. Anal Stage (1-3 yrs)
    • ------Potty Training
    • ------Beginning of super ego- first time they are expected to go against id
    • ------Fixations
    • ----------Over controlling
    • ---------------Child become controlling, attention to detail, OCD
    • ----------Under controlling
    • ---------------Be sloppy, messy, always late (don’t conform to society)
    • Physical development (muscle control) before emotional control
  14. Erikson
    • 1. Basic Trust vs Mistrust (0-1 yr)
    • ------Quality of feeding, not oral need
    • ------Let baby cry 2 hrs or get baby when know want food
    • ----------Balance of care- are you responding at the important times; not necessarily every time cry
    • ----------Develop basic trust in care givers- view the world as happy place
    • ----------Too many caretakers (look for people to meet needs)- scary world- No one will meet their needs
    • ------Allow bonding with baby and mom
    • 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1-3 yrs)
    • ------Recognizing individuals and want to do it yourself
    • ------Fixation
    • ----------Over controlling
    • ---------------Do everything for kid
    • ---------------Tell child they cant do anything
    • ----------Under controlling
    • ---------------Try and cant do it
    • ------Need to give them autonomy of what they can do
    • ------Give choices-Do you want this skirt or this one
  15. Bowlby- Attachment Theory
    • ------Said most people were fixated in basic trust vs mistrust
    • ----------Didn’t trust other people
    • -----Need relationships with other
    • -----Influenced by Harlow- Rhesus Monkey
    • ---------Showed evidence that Erikson was right not Freud- Drive towards security
    • ----------When tried to reintegrate monkeys they couldnt
    • ---------------Anxious, distrusting, anger
    • ---------------Wanted security and safety and if didn’t get then long term period
    • -----Lorenz- Imprinting
    • ---------Critical period
  16. Sensitive Period- (0-2yrs)
    • -----Most important stage – averting after was continuous
    • -----Attachment needs to form- strong affectionate bond for special people
    • -----Quality of attachment makes a working model (mental representation)2 yrs
    • -----What good working model should look like
    • -----If we have a secure attachment then okay
    • -----70-80% infant secure
    • ----------90% secure infant become a secure adult
    • ------2 yrs after marriage your primary caregiver changes to husband opposed to parents
    • -----You understand what a good relationship is- you make compromises for a person because they would do the same for you
    • ------Secure base- person you are attached to- you can do whatever you want but if there is a problem you know there is a problem
    • ----------Easy to hug, less than a min to calm down
    • ------30% insecure- based on structured observation (Strange Situation)through Ainsworth
    • ----------Avoidant (20%)
    • ---------------May cry when mom leaves but may not
    • ---------------Baby is anxious when mom leaves but may not show
    • ---------------When mom comes back they ignore her and play with toys
    • ---------------Stiff, look away
    • ---------------Don’t act like needed mom
    • ---------------Intrusive mom- over controlling
    • ---------------Mom not responsive to baby- the are controlling
    • ------Resistant (10%)
    • -------------Angry and fight mom
    • -------------Response is inconsistent
    • -------------Keeps crying when mom comes back
    • -------------Slaps toys that you really like away, cry louder
    • -------------Cant use her for comfort
  17. Longitudinal Work
    • • ___ student of Mary Ainsworth
    • • AAI- Adult Attachment Interview
    • • Interviewer and coder are different
    • • Remember back of a memory as far as you can
    • o Give 4 adj and state memory
    • • Insecure person said loving was when hit with wooden spoon
    • • What mom did when you were sick
    • • 90% Secure baby becomes secure adult and more likely to have secure relationships with their baby
    • o Trust more people
    • • Avoidant baby become dismissing adult (relationships)
    • o Very independent, don’t want anyone to count on you and you don’t want to count on anyone else
    • o Raise avoidant kid
    • • Resistant baby becomes preoccupied adult
    • o Struggle in relationships bc never feel secure, clinging but mad clinging, cant trust
    • o Raises resistant kid
    • • Earned Security- when unsecure baby becomes secure adult
    • o In marriage- unsecure becomes with secure’s parents
    • o Sometimes kid becomes responsive if they are in hospital and parent always there
    • o Secure attachment with mom and mom dies and no one steps up then baby becomes unsecure
    •  Baby stays secure if have another secure attachment
    • • Birth – 6 weeks (all reflexes)- Pre attachment
    • o If mom attaches with baby, baby attaches to mom
    • • 6 weeks- 6 months- Attachment in the making
    • o Attachment strongly formed
    • • 6- 12 months- Clear cut attachment
    • o Secure attachment (sensitive period) goes up to 2 yrs
    •  After 2 years very hard to make secure attachment
  18. Therapies based on Bowlby’s theories
    • • Russian babies with physical means but no affection  no attachment
    • • Camps to reattach with kids
    • • Not rebirthing “treatments”

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