Dysphagia-> Difficult swallowing ->(Oropharyngeal dysphagia or Esophageal dysphagia)
Odynophagia-> Painful swallowing-> (Sharp, substernal pain with swallowing and Reflects severe erosive dz, infectious esophagitis)
What is an upper endoscopy useful for?
Capable of biopsy
Study of choice for persistent heartburn, odynophagia, and abnormalities noted on barium studies
What study differentiates between mechanical and motility disorders and is the study of choice to evaluate dysphagia?
What does an esophageal pH recording do?
Correlates to patient's symptoms
What study is:
-Used to assess esophageal motility
-Determines the location of the lower esophageal sphincter for pH probe placement
-Establishes etiology of dysphagia, esp. achalasia (after Barium esophagram)
-Pre-operative prior to Nissen fundoplication
What are the 4 layers of the GI wall?
True or false: The mucosa contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
False. The submucosa contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics. The mucosa contains epithelium.
True or false: The muscularis is usually two layers of smooth muscle -> the outer longitudinal and inner circular.
What makes up the serosa?
Simple squamous epithelium and connective tissue.
What percentage of adults have weekly symptoms of GERD? What percentage have daily symptoms?