Biol 1204

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shanev
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242380
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Biol 1204
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2013-10-23 19:10:16
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Biology
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Terminology
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  1. Biodiversity
    species richness or number of species
  2. Heterotrophic
    • attains
    • energy by eating plants, fungi, algae or animals
  3. Photoautotrophic
    • release
    • O2 into atmosphere (plants, algae, cyanobacteria)
  4. Mychorrhizae fungi
    Literally "fungus root" refers to symbiotic relationship fungus has with plants
  5. Plasmodium and Giardia
    • Apicomplexan
    • protists causing malaria and beaver fever
  6. Taxonomy
    • system
    • of classification or naming organisms
  7. Binomial name
    • Genus
    • + species   ie. Homo sapiens
  8. Phylogeny
    • evolutionary
    • relatedness
  9. Homologous feature
    • present
    • in ancestral species and all decendents
  10. Molecular clock
    • DNA
    • dating how long ago ancestors lived
  11. Evolutionary relatedness
    • how
    • recently they shared a common ancestor
  12. Clade
    • monophyletic
    • lineage, lineage from one ancestor ie – one “branch”
  13. Character
    a feature of an organism
  14. Derived – apomorphic
    • character
    • not seen in early ancestors of an organism (reptiles HAD legs)
  15. Ancestral – plesiomorphic
    • character
    • seen in early ancestors of an organism
  16. Synapomorphy
    • homologous
    • derived character (all snakes are limbless)
  17. Ingroup
    group being analyzed
  18. Outgroup
    • closely
    • releated group but not being analyzed
  19. Parsimony
    scientific preference for simplest possible explanation of data
  20. Outgroup determines what?
    Outgroup determines ancestral state of all characters – used as a control
  21. Parsimony aims for what?
    Parsimony wants the simplest possible cladogram
  22. B.O.B. –  __________
    • B.O.B. – “Branched
    • off before” in cladograms
  23. Divergent evolution
    • closely
    • related animals
  24. Convergent evolution
    • distantly
    • related animals
  25. Bilateral symmetry
    • associated
    • with cephalization
  26. Pentaradial symmetry
    • 5
    • planes of symmetry
  27. Diploblastic
    only 2 germ layers, endoderm and ectoderm (Cnidarians)
  28. Triploblastic
    has mesoderm 3rd layer (Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida, Mollusca)
  29. Which Phyla have the 3rd mesoderm layer?
    Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida, Mollusca
  30. Acoelomate
    Triploblastic animals that lack body cavity
  31. Mesenchyme
    • layer of cells derived from mesoderm in Acolemates found between gut and body wall. (similar layer may be formed from ectoderm in diploblastic
    • animals)
  32. Blastopore
    original embryonic opening in developing cell of protostomes or deuterostomes
  33. if the protostome forms a coelom, it is always ________?
    schizocoelom
  34. schizocoelom
    schizocoelom is as the mesoderm develops, it “splits” into inner and outer layers
  35. coelom is what?
    body cavity (can describe animals, but not evolutionary relationships)
  36. Monophyletic
    all in one branch, inludes all members of cladogram
  37. paraphyletic
    missing members of cladogram
  38. polyphyletic
    multiple branches of cladogram
  39. Ecdysis
    • moulting, shedding
    • skin (shells) shedding of external
    • cuticle. Pertains only to Nematoda
    • and Arthropoda
  40. Nematoda and Arthropoda do this
    moulting through Ecdysis
  41. Dioecious
    separate sexes
  42. Metamerism
    • being metameric segmentation – different segments.
    • 3 phyla have this character
  43. Neural crest cells
    • migrate
    • through body during development and build cranium, nerves, teeth
  44. Zygomycota
    • subphyla of fungi - Bread mold.
    • Hyphae are coenocytic - septa only in reproductive cells
  45. Glomeromycota
    arbuscular mycorrhiza "little trees" symbionts with plant roots. fungi live in cell walls but not plasma membranes of plants
  46. Ascomycota
    • decomposers, symbioant w/ green algae and cyanobactera called lichens. spores produced in sacs, aka sac fungi
    • Yeasts!
  47. Basidiomycota
    • mushrooms, (dome on stick, puffballs, conks (shelf mushroom))
    • 'Basidium' - club-shaped cells
    • extensive dikaryotic mycelia stage - more genetic recombination the longer it's in this stage
    • Basidiocarps - big bodies of mushrooms
    • Basidia spore producing gills
  48. extensive dikaryotic mycelia stage
    extensive dikaryotic mycelia stage - more genetic recombination the longer it's in this stage
  49. Basidia
    spore producing gills you press on paper
  50. Hyphae
    tiny threadlike fibers of simple fungi
  51. Mycelia
    networks of Hyphae
  52. Septa
    walls between fungi, mitochondria pass between them. Septate have septa, coenocytic don't have septa
  53. Septate
    having septa
  54. coenocytic
    not having septa (walls between fungi that pass mitochondria)
  55. Sporangia
    enclosure where spores form
  56. Chytridomycota
    paraphyletic orgins (subphyla of fungi)
  57. Fungi is under which classification
    Opisthokonts - animals
  58. like arthropoda, fungi have this
    chitin (in cell walls)
  59. Spongocoel
    cavity in middle of porifera
  60. Epithelial-like layer of cells are on which phyla
    porifera, located on outer cells on the animal
  61. choanocytes
    inner cells of porifera (collared cells w/ flagellum)
  62. Osculum on a porifera
    water exits through this hole at the top
  63. choanocytes resemble these early ancestors of porifera
    choanoflagellates
  64. 2 examples of Cnidaria
    jellyfish and hydras
  65. Cnidaria Germ layer?
    diploblastic - ectoderm and endoderm
  66. two tissue layers of Cnidaria
    epidermus (outer) and gastrodermis (inner)
  67. located in between the epidermus and gastrodermis on Cnidaria
    mesoglea - jelly-like layer in between tissues
  68. Stinging cells are called ? (on Cnidaria) and where are they located
    cnidocytes are the cells, the stinging structure is nematocyst. located on the epidermus
  69. stinging structure of cnidocytes (on cnidaria)
    nematocyst
  70. Polyps
    • Cnidaria - don't move
    • sea anemones, corals
  71. Medusas
    • mobile Cnidaria
    • jellyfish and hydras
  72. Anthozoa
    • subphyla of Cnidaria
    • Sea anemones and corals
  73. Symbioant of corals?
    Dinoflagellates - they transfer carbs to the coral in exchange for a place to live
  74. Hydrazoa
    subphyla of Cnidaria - Hydras exist as polyp or medusa forms
  75. Schphozoa
    subphyla of Cnidaria "true jellyfish" Medusa body form
  76. Cubozoa
    subphyla of Cnidaria - box jellyfish
  77. Platyhelminthes
    Flatworms
  78. Platyhelminthes have a Body cavity?  T or F?
    F - no body cavity, interior portion of their body is filled w/ mesoderm aka mesenchyme.
  79. Platyhelminthes coelom?
    Acoelomate - no body cavity, filled with mesenchyme (mesoderm)
  80. Tubellaria
    • Subphyla of Platyhelminthes
    •  - free-living flatworms
    •  - only platyhelminthes that isn't parasitic
  81. Cestoda
    Subphyla of Platyhelminthes, Tapeworms
  82. Monogenea
    Subphyla of Platyhelminthes, external flukes
  83. Tremotoda
    Subphyla of Platyhelminthes, internal flukes  ie - liver flukes
  84. Rotifera have a wheel-like corona (crown) covered in _____ for locomotion
    cilia
  85. T or F, Rotifera HAVE a body cavity
    T, but it is surrounded by mesoderm and endoderm derived tissue, thus Pseudocoelomate
  86. Rotifera type of coelom?
    Pseudocoelomate
  87. Parthenogenesis (Rotifera)
    female produces a diploid egg via mitosis, egg then devops into female rotifers. haploid eggs become male if remained unfertilized, female if fertilized
  88. Rotifera, one-way or two-way digestive tract?
    one-way, they have an anus, thus blastopore is _____?
  89. Oligochaeta
    Subphyla of Annelida - earthworms
  90. Hirudinea
    Subphyla of Annelida - leeches
  91. Polychaeta
    Subphyla of Annelida - polychaete or bristle worms
  92. Three Subphyla of Annelida?
    • Oligochaeta - earthworms
    • Hirudinea - leeches
    • Polychaeta - bristle worms
  93. Annelida type of coelom?
    Eucoelomate - b/c they have a body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm-derived tissue
  94. Metamerism
    Metameric segmentation - body parts are repeated in each segment
  95. Metameric segmentation
    body parts are repeated in each segmentation, like arthropoda
  96. 4 Subphyla of Mollusa?
    • Polyplacophora - chitons
    • Bivalvia - clams, mussels
    • Gastropoda - snails, slugs, nudibranchs
    • Cephalopoda - octopus, squids
  97. Polyplacophora
    Subphyla of Mollusa - chitons (kuboto shells)
  98. Bivalvia
    Subphyla of Mollusa - clams, mussels
  99. Gastropoda
    Subphyla of Mollusa - snails, slugs, nudibranchs
  100. Cephalopoda
    Subphyla of Mollusa - octopus, squids
  101. 3 parts of Mollusks?
    Head-foot, Visceral mass, Mantle
  102. Mantle?
    part of mollusca that encloses the visceral mass, secretes the calcium-carbonate shell
  103. Head-foot?
    part of Mollusca for movement
  104. Visceral Mass
    part of Mollusca where the heart, reproductive organs, excretory and digestive organs are.
  105. which Mollusca subphyla is asymmetrical?
    "Shelled Gastropoda" b/c of the torsion they undergo, during development (snail shell)
  106. Radula?  *hint  Mollusa
    tongue-like thing on snails to scrape up food like algae. * of Mollusa
  107. T or F, Nematoda are Dioecious?
    T, Dioecious means individuals are either male or female
  108. Nematoda are parasitic?
    T, major parasitic species causing Pinworms and Heartworms, and Trichinosis (pork disease) and Elephantitis
  109. which phyla causes Trichinosis? (Pork disease)
    Nematoda - roundworms
  110. along with arthropoda, Nematoda have this to protect them from the enviroment?
    Non-living Cuticle, Ecdysozoan
  111. Ecdysozoan
    Nematoda and Arthropoda have non-living cuticles to protect them from the enviroment
  112. Nematoda type of muscles?
    Have only Longitudinal muscles, thus they trash for movement
  113. Largest diversity of phyla on earth?
    Arthropoda 80% of earth animals
  114. Arthropoda undergo _____ to shed their exoskeleton?
    moulting
  115. Arthropoda have this type of segementation?
    Metametic segmentation
  116. T or F, Arthropoda are Dioeious?
    T, they are usually seperate sexes
  117. 5 Subphyla of Arthropoda?
    • Trilobita
    • Chelicerata - horseshoe crabs, spiders, mites
    • Crustacea - lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimp
    • Myriapoda - millipedes and cenepedes
    • Hexapoda - "Six legs" bugs
  118. Trilobita
    extinct Subphyla of Arthropoda
  119. Crustacea
    Subphyla of Arthropoda - lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimp, (includes zooplankton) and Barnacles
  120. Barnacles are which Subphyla of Arthropoda?
    Crustacea
  121. Crustacea have how many pairs of modified appandages?
    • 5 pairs, attached to head region
    • includes antennae, mandibles (chewing) maxillae (holding)
    • head & thorax are fused into cephalothroax
  122. Myriapoda?
    • Subphyla of Arthropoda, centipedes and millipedes, head and trunk Metameric segmentation into trunk.
    • 1 and 2 pairs of legs per segment
    • predator / decaying vegetables?
  123. 3 parts of Hexapoda?
    • Six legs bugs
    • Head, Thorax, Abdomen
    • Specialized appendages come from Thorax
    • many can fly,
  124. Spiracals
    Holes on side of exoskeleton of Hexapoda
  125. Complete Metamorphosis vs incomplete metamorphosis and examples of each
    • complete - caterpillar, full change
    • incomplete - grasshopper, young look like baby adults
  126. Water-vascular system
    fluid filled canals and resivoirs of Echinodermata
  127. Aboral surface
    top side of Echinodermata
  128. oral surface
    bottom of Echinodermata
  129. Madreporite?
    water enters this hole on aboral surface of Echinodermata
  130. Ring Canal
    surrounds the esophagus of Echinodermata
  131. Radial Canals
    5 of them down each arm of the Echinodermata
  132. name of structure Echinodermata use to move?
    Tube feet
  133. Ampulla
    water fills this top bulb of tube feet to elongate them so they can move
  134. Echinodermata type of skeleton?
    endoskeleton covered in skin
  135. Ossicles  *hint - disks
    flexible structure of starfish, they are fused on sea urchins
  136. Echinodermata examples? name 5
    Seastars, Brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars
  137. Echinodermata type of symmetry
    • bilateral.
    • Pentaradial is secondarily derived as it is not ancestral. (ancestors were bilateral)
  138. Chordata segmentation?
    Metameric Segmentation, like the arthropoda and annelida
  139. name 3 phyla that have metameric segmentation? (Metamerism?)
    • Chordata, Arthropoda, Annelida
  140. 4 distinguishing features of Chordata?
    • Hollow dorsal nerve cord
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • notochord - (rod shape in all chordata, from mesoderm, shapes embryo)
    • post-anal tail - at some point in life 
    • (features may only be present as embryo)
  141. 3 Subphylum of Chordata
    • Urochordata - tunicates and sea squirts
    • Cephalochordata - lancet (toothbrushes)
    • Vertebrata - *neural crest cells*
  142. Urochordata examples
    tunicates and sea squirts
  143. Urochordata
    • Subphylum of Chordata, tunicates and sea squirts (resemble sponges)
    •  - tunicates have two syphons, pharyngeal gill-slits filter organic matter from water.
    •  - adults are sessile and filter feed
  144. Sessile?
    non-mobile
  145. Cephalochordata
    • Subphylum of Chordata - lancet
    •  - mobile
    •  - all 4 distinguishing features
  146. Neural crest cells
    distinct form germ layer forms nervous system in development of Vertabrates
  147. 3 types of vertebrates
    • lampreys
    • hagfish
    • Tetrapoda - 4 limbs
  148. what are the branches that glomeromycota shoot into plant cells called?
  149. when glomeromycota symbioants with a plant, what are the black specs in the cell-wall called?
  150. Species richness or number of species?
    Biodiversity
  151. Attains energy by eating plants, fungi, algae, or animals
    Heterotophic
  152. makes own food and releases O2 into atmosphere
    Photoautotrophic
  153. Literally means "fungus root" - refers to symbiotic relationship fungus has with plants
    Mychorrhizae fungi
  154. Apicomplexan protists causing Malaria and beaver fever respectively
    Plasmodium and Giardia
  155. system of classification or naming organisms
    Taxonomy
  156. Genus + species, ie - Homo sapiens
    Binomial name
  157. Evolutionary relatedness
    Phylogeny
  158. If a feature is present in ancestral species and all descendants, the character is ______?
    Homologous
  159. DNA dating to date how long ago ancestors lived
    Molecular clock
  160. How recently two ancestors shared a common ancestor
    Evolutionary relatedness
  161. monophyuletic lineage, lineage from one ancestor  ie - one "branch"
    Clade
  162. a feature of an organism
    character
  163. character not seen in early ancestors of an organism  ex - reptiles HAD legs
    Derived character - apomorphic
  164. Character seen in early ancestors of an organism
    Ancestral - plesiomorphic
  165. The group of a cladogram being organized
    Ingroup
  166. Closely related group but not being analyzed of a cladogram
    Outgroup
  167. Scientific preference for simplest possible explanation of data (when interpreting cladogram phylogenys)
    Parsimony
  168. what does an outgroup determine in a cladogram, and what is the purpose of the outgroup
    Outgroup determines the ancestral state of all characters - used as a control
  169. What does Parsimony aim for in cladograms?
    Parsimony aims for the simplest possible cladogram

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