med term chapter 10

Card Set Information

med term chapter 10
2013-10-23 18:08:03
med term nervous system hsa 200 eku

the nervous system
Show Answers:

  1. acetylcholine
    Neurotransmitter chemical released at ends of nerve cells
  2. afferent nerve
    carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
  3. arachnoid membrane
    middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  4. astrocyte
    Glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
  5. autonomic nervous system
    Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
  6. axon
    Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
  7. blood-brain barrier
    Protective separation between the blood and brain cells that keeps substances (such as anticancer drugs) from penetrating capillary walls and entering the brain
  8. brain stem
    Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
  9. cauda equina
    Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
  10. cell body
    the part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
  11. central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord
  12. cerebellum
    the posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
  13. cerebral cortex
    Outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerve cells; gray matter
  14. cerebrospinal fluid
    Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
  15. cerebrum
    The largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
  16. cranial nerves
    Twelve pairs; carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
  17. dendrite
    Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; the first part to receive the nervous impulse
  18. dura mater
    The thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
  19. efferent nerve
    Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
  20. ependymal cell
    Glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
  21. ganglion (plural:ganglia)
    collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
  22. glial cell (neuroglial cell)
    Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses; can reproduce itself
  23. gyrus (plural:gyri)
    Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
  24. hypothalamus
    The portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pituitary gland secretions
  25. medulla oblongata
    The part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels
  26. meninges
    Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  27. microglial cell
    Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
  28. motor nerve
    Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
  29. myelin sheath
    Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell; speeds impulse conduction
  30. nerve
    Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
  31. neuron
    Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout body; parenchyma of the nervous system
  32. neurotransmitter
    Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell
  33. oligondendroglial cell
    Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell
  34. parasympathetic nerves
    Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
  35. parenchyma
    Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system;  for the nervous system, neurons and nerves that carry impulses
  36. peripheral nervous system
    Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
  37. pia mater
    The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
  38. plexus (plural:plexuses)
    A large, interlacing network of nerves
  39. pons
    The part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain.
  40. receptor
    An organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves;  the skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors
  41. sciatic nerve
    The nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
  42. sensory nerve
    Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptor; afferent nerve
  43. spinal nerves
    Thirty-one pairs arising from the spinal cord
  44. stimulus (plural: stimuli)
    An agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
  45. stroma
    Connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
  46. sulcus (plural: sulci)
    Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
  47. sympathetic nerves
    Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
  48. synapse
    The space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
  49. thalamus
    Main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
  50. vagus nerve
    Tenth cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
  51. ventricles of the brain
    Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
  52. cerebell/o
  53. cerebr/o
  54. dur/o
    dura mater
  55. encephal/o
  56. gli/o
    glial cells
  57. lept/o
    thin, slender
  58. mening/o
    • membranes
    • menings
  59. my/o
  60. myel/o
    spinal cord
  61. neur/o
  62. pont/o
  63. radicul/o
    nerve root
  64. thalam/o
  65. thec/o
    sheath (refers to meninges)
  66. vag/o
    vagus nerve
  67. alges/o
    excessive sensitivity to pain
  68. -algia
  69. caus/o
  70. comat/o
    deep sleep
  71. esthesi/o
    feeling, nervous sensation
  72. kines/o
  73. -kinesis
  74. -lepsy
  75. lex/o
    word, phrase
  76. -paresis
    slight paralysis
  77. -phasia
  78. -plegia
  79. -praxia
  80. -sthenia
  81. syncop/o
    cut off
  82. tax/o
    order, coordination
  83. angi/o
    blood vessel
  84. cephal/o
  85. cry/o
  86. gli/o
  87. hydr/o
  88. kines/o
  89. lept/o
    thin, slender
  90. narc/o
  91. olig/o
  92. radicul/o
    nerve root
  93. syncop/o
  94. tax/o
  95. troph/o