Electricity Chapter 11
Card Set Information
Electricity Chapter 11
electricity chapter 11
My Vocab cards for electricity chapter 10.
A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow.
This can take the form of a circuit board, loads wired together, the wires in your house, and even something as large as the power grid.
A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
Some common types would be
: Zinc-Carbon, Alkaline, Lead-Acid, Silver-Oxide, etc.
A connection of two or more cells.
When you place two AA "Batteries" (which are really cells) in a flashlight you make a battery.
One of two metal terminals in a cell or battery.
They must be made of different metals with different holds onto electrons so the electrons know which way to flow.
A solution or paste that conducts charge.
The electrolyte separates the two electrodes and the chemical reaction that takes place to move electrons happens within the electrolyte.
A cell that contains an electrolyte that is a paste.
Some common dry cells would be Zinc-carbon and Alkaline.
A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
An example would be a lead-acid battery.
A cell that can only be used once.
Some examples would be Zinc-Carbon and Alkaline.
A cell that can be recharged.
Some common types would be lead-acid and lithium-ion.
A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the fuel cell.
An example would be a hydrogen fuel cell that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water, heat, and electricity.
A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy.
The location on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
Both the positive terminal and negative terminal must be connected to the circuit to complete it.
Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.
A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected.
This is useful because circuits don't have to be on all the time if you have a switch.
A circuit that contains a gap or break.
An open circuit can not function since there is no complete path for electrons to travel along.
Hitting a switch or button on a lamp or TV can open or close a circuit.
The rate of movement of electric charge (flow of electrons).
An analogy would be to think of how many m
of water flow by in a river per second.
The quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25 * 10
The unit of electric current, equivalent to one coulomb per second.
An ammeter measures the amount of current in one location of a circuit in amperes.
The property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electrical energy to other forms of energy.
Some materials have lower or higher resistances than other materials.
Materials with lower resistances are conductors while materials with very high resistances are insulators.
A devices used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
These are useful to ensure that components in a circuit don't get too much energy and break.
A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, light, or other forms of energy.
Some examples would be
: a speaker, a light a bulb, a motor, a stove, etc.
Potential difference (voltage)
The difference between the electric potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit.
The unit for potential difference, equivalent to one joule (J) per coulomb (C).
The equation to find potential difference is:
potential difference = difference in potential energy (J) / charge (C)
A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric circuit and their connections.
Some standard symbols are that two parallel lines of different length represent a cell, straight lines are connecting wires, and a switch is a portion of the wire that looks swivelled open.
A circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow.
If a series circuit is broken at any point then the whole circuit will stop functioning.
A circuit in which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow.
Parallel circuits can be broken and any path not affected by the break can still function.
The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance.
The equation is written as V=IR
Thus the more resistance in a circuit, the less current since they is more resistance to the movement of electrons and the movement of electrons is current.
The unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A).
If you substitute in potential difference and current measurements into the equation V=IR you can find the resistance in ohms.
All loads in a circuit increase the resistance of a circuit.
A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
An example of a superconductor is when the wires in the CERN supercollider are cooled to a few degrees above zero with liquid helium.
Not following Ohm's law.
An incandescent light bulb filament is non-ohmic since the filament increases in temperature which increases the resistance and produces a non-ohmic energy curve.
Loads in series
In a series circuit the potential difference across the cell must equal the sum of all the potential differences across all of the loads.
The current of through the battery is equal to the current through all the loads.
Loads in parallel
In a parallel circuit the potential difference across the cell is equal to the potential differences across of the loads.
The current total current must be equal to the sum of all the currents through all the paths.