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what is anabolism?
what is catabolism
what is metabolic flow?
from beginning to the end
*process of taking energy in then utilizing it to build strcutral and functional products and ATP then removing waste
(specific types of reaction) oxidation-reduction-- What is oxidation? (2)
-loss of H atoms or electrons
(specific types of reaction) oxidation-reduction-- what is reduction? (2)
-loss of O2
-gain of H atoms or electron
(specific types of reaction) oxidation-reduction-- what are the 2 enzymes used in redox reactions?
(specific types of reaction) oxidation-reduction-- what are the 2 cofactors?
- *nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
- *flavin adenine dinucleotide
(specific types of reaction) substrate phosphorylation-- 2 characteristics of this?
-typical formation of ATP
(specific types of reaction) oxidative phosphorylation--2 characteristics of this
**this is where we get most of our ATP production
what is metabolsim?
all biochemical events occuring in the body at any given time
what is primary purpose of cell respiration?
Which phosphorylation takes place in mitochondrion and have multiple steps?
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) Anaerobic sources of ATP- what type of phosphorylation is creatine kinase?
substrate level phosphorylation
**one of the quickest sources of energy
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) anaerobic sources of ATP- what is an example of stored ATP?
- myosin head*this is considered anearobic bc in relaxed position, ozygen is not needed
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) where does the creatine kinase reaction occur?
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) glycolysis-- brief description of this
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) glycolysis-- where are the enzymes located that produce this reaction?
mechanisms of ATP synthesis) glycolysis--what 3 things do we get from 1 molecule of glucose?
-a net of 2 ATP
-2 reduced forms of NAD (NADH+)
glycolitic pathway) where is it lcated?
enzymes are located in cytoplasm of cell
glycolitic pathway) Phase 1- sugar activation (2)
-invest 2 atp
-convert glucose to fructose by phosphorylating
glycolitic pathway) phase 2--sugar cleavage (2)
- -break 6 carbon molecule into 2, 3 carbon molecules
- *each are carrying a phosphate
-no energy lost or gained at this stage
glycolitic pathway) phase 3-- Oxidation and ATP formation (2)
- -each 3 carbon molecules is oxidized
- *these electrons are transferred to NAD converting it to NADH
-4 ATP were made here but net gain is 2 ATP
glycolitic pathway) what are we left off after phase 3?
2 pyruvic acid
At the end of glycolysis , what was our net gained of ATP?
(aerobic respiration) where is the remaining oxdization of glucose going to take place at?
(aerobic respiration) phase 1-- conversion of (2) pyruvate to (2) acetyl CoA
-(2) pyruvate turns into (2) acetyl CoA by releasing (2) carbon dioxide and reducing (2) NAD
(aerobic respiration) phase 2-- Krebs cycle: (2) acetyl CoA is broken down completely to create (3)
-(2) 3 NADH
-(2) 1 FADH
- (2) 1 ATP
where does krebs cycle occur?
(aerobic respiration) what does the ETC do?
extracts energy from reduced compounds (NADH FADH) and synthesizes ATP using that energy that came out when extracting energy from reduced compounds
(aerobic respiration) How does the ETC extract enrgy from reduced compounds?
splits H atom into proton and Electron
(aerobic respiration) does ETC use O2?
(aerobic respiration) where does ETC occur?
**there are alot of cristae
(aerobic respiration) ETC sequence of events (5)
-H atom removed from cofactors NADH and FADH and split into e- and H+
-e- passed down the chain; energy from e- utilized to pump protons into intermembrane space
- -creates concentration gradietn of H+ on one side of membrane
- *positives on one side and negatives on the other
-ATP synthase enzymes use energy from diffusion to synthesize ATP as H+ diffuses across membrane
-electrons at the end of chain are picked up by O2 in mitochondrion they are then combined with H+ to form water
what is net income of ATP in krebs cycle?
where does the majority of ATP come from?
(aerobic respiration) krebbs cycle and glycolysiss is an example of?
substrate level phsophorylation
(muscle work) what are the 2 ways we cna produce energy?
what is anaerobic threshold?
during heavy exercise an increase in blood lactate can be seeen
is oxygen present in mitochondria?
why is there a build up of lactate acid?
krebs and ETC enzymes have slower velocity than the glycolysis enzymes which leads to back up of pyruvate rather then slow down the production of pyruvate it is converted into lactate that can be shuttled out of muscle cell (it can be used by other muscle cells and reconfigure it to pyruvate again).
is lactate a waste product?
no, its a fuel
what definition of fatigue?
physiological inability to contract
causes of fatigue (6)
-ATP production fails to keep pace with usage
- -pH changes
- *lactate is an acid thus changing the pH levels
-neurological trasnmission of AP either through nerve or at neruomuscluar junction may become fatigue
- -ionic imbalances
- *loss of K
- -mitochondrial function
- *chronic fatigue syndrome
why do we pant after a exercise?
- bc of excess post exercise O2 consumption
- *replenishment of oxygen reserves, glycogen stores, and ATP resynthesizes
heat production) whats efficiency of conversion of ATP bond energy converteed to kinetic energy?
- *the rest is given off as heat
(fuel sources for ATP production) what is the main carb that is used for atp production?
(fuel sources for ATP production) what is glycogenesis?
make glycogen from glucose
(fuel sources for ATP production) what is glycogenolysis?
break down glycogen to extract glucose
(fuel sources for ATP production) what is gluconeogenesis?
- make glucose from other source
- *amino acids
(fuel sources for ATP production) Lipids-- wha is lipogenesis?
storage of lipids
(fuel sources for ATP production) what is lipolysis?
break down to use for energy
(fuel sources for ATP production) what are the products of lipid breakdown used for?
-can be fed into krebs, glycolysis pathways and energy is extracted
(fuel sources for ATP production) can proteins be used also?
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