Anat test chapter 6

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phantomr254
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242472
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Anat test chapter 6
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2013-10-23 20:42:38
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anatomy test
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terms and examples needed for a chapter 6 bio test
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  1. 5 main functions of skeletal system
    • 1) Support- framework for attachment of soft tissue
    • 2) storage- Stores lipids and Minerals
    • 3) Blood cell production- contained in Red Marrow
    • 4) Protection- Soft tissue and organs surround by bones
    • 5) leverage
  2. Bones divided into 6 Groups
    • 1) Long bones
    • 2) short bones
    • 3) Flat bones
    • 4) Irregular
    • 5) sesamiod bones
    • 6) Sutural bones
  3. long bones example
    Humerous/ Femer
  4. Short bones example
    Carpals
  5. flat bones example
    Sternum
  6. Irregular Bones example
    Vertebrae/ Pelvic
  7. Sesamoid bones example
    (find out)
  8. Sutural bones example
    Sutures
  9. 5 main parts of long bones
    • 1) Diaphysis
    • 2) Epiphysis
    • 3) Metaphysis
    • 4) Marrow Cavity
    • 5) Cortex
  10. 2 types of Marrow and their function
    • 1)Yellow- Aids in┬ástorage of lipids and other minerals
    • 2) Red- Areas of blood cell protection
  11. Canaliculi
    Small passages for exchanging nutrients gases and wastes
  12. Osseos Tissue 4 types of cells
    • 1)Osteocytes
    • 2)osteoblasts
    • 3)osteoprogenitor cells
    • 4)Osteoclasts
  13. Osteocytes 2 major functions
    • 1) Recycle Ca Salts
    • 2) Help repair damage bone
  14. Osteoblasts functions
    Produce new bone matrix (osteogensis)
  15. Osteoprogenitor cells functions
    • Aid in the repair of fractures
    • Produce Osteoblasts
  16. Osteon
    The basic unit of compact bone- Consisting of osteocytes organized around a central canal and separated by concentric lamellae
  17. Osteoclasts functions
    Secrete acids to release the stored energy
  18. Periostem
    Fibrous outer layer of bone that helps to isolate bone from surroundings
  19. Endostem
    • Lines marrow cavities
    • Made of a simple layer of osteopragenitor cells
  20. Intermembranous Ossification 3 steps
    • 1) Messenchymal cells secrete organic part of the matrix, this becomes mineralized with Ca salts
    • 2) Bone grows out and forms struts called spicules
    • 3) Finally forms spongy bone, but can later become compact bone
  21. Endochondral Ossification 6 steps
    • 1) Cartilage grows, chondrocytes enlarge (cartilage cells), Lancunae expand and the Matrix is reduced, chondrocytes are deprived of nutrients and die
    • 2) Blood vessels from- help to from the periostemand and an inner osteogenitc layer
    • 3) Blood supply increases to the periosteum and begins to calcify the cartilage
    • 4) Bone enlarges, osteoclasts appear and erode away a central marrow cavity
    • 5) Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate to the epiphysis to form secondary ossification centers
    • 6) Epiphysis filled with spongy bone with a thin layer of cartilage left (articular cartilage) that prevents damage at joints
  22. 3 Major sets of blood vessels
    • 1) Nutrient artery and Vein- enter through a foramen in the diaphysis
    • 2) Metaplyseal vessels- Supply the inner surface of each epiphyseal plate
    • 3) Periosteal vessels- From the periosteum
  23. Calcitrol
    • Made in the kidneys
    • Necessary for Ca absorption in the small intestines
  24. Vitamin C
    Needed for Collagen synthesis
  25. Vitamin A/B12
    • synthesis of bone protein
    • Growth hormone
    • Puberty stimulates sex hormones which cause osteoblasts to make bones quicker
  26. Calcium balance Decrease in Ca+2 levels
    • Chemoreceptors of parathyroid release PTH (parathyriods Hormones)
    • Leads to an osteoclast increase (Destroying Bone)
    • Increase the rate of absorption of Ca Ions
    • Decreases the rate of excretion of Ca +2 at the kidneys
  27. Calcium Balance Increase in Ca +2 levels
    • Chemoreceptors of thyroid
    • Releases Calcitonin (Inhibits activity, Calciton)
    • With less Ca+ in fluids
    • 1) inhibits intestinal absorption
    • 2) increases Excretion in Kidneys
    • 3) Increases osteoblast activity
  28. Repair steps
    • 1) From a Hematoma (Large Blood clot)
    • 2) External callus and an internal Callus if needed
    • 3) Osteoblasts replace central cartilage
    • 4) Osteoclasts and osteoblast remodel region for about 4 months to over a year
  29. Effects of Aging
    • 1) Osteopenia- Inadequate ossification
    • -Reduces bone mass
    • 2)Osteoporosis- server reduction of bone mass
    • -due to sex hormones different for male and women
    • 3) Cancer in bones causes the production of osteoclast activity factor
    • -Causes very sever bone reduction and osteoporosis
  30. Process
    Any projection or bump
  31. Ramus
    An extension of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure
  32. Trochanter
    A large, rough projection
  33. Tuberosity
    a smaller, rough projection
  34. Tubercle
    a small, rounded projection
  35. crest
    a prominent ridge
  36. line
    a low ridge
  37. spine
    a pointed process
  38. head
    the expanded articular end of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by the neck
  39. Neck
    A narrow connection between the epiphysis and he diaphysis
  40. Condyle
    A smooth, rounded articular process
  41. Trochlea
    A smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley
  42. Facet
    A small, flat articular surface
  43. Fossa
    A shallow depression
  44. sulcus
    a narrow groove
  45. Foramen
    A rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves
  46. Canal
    A passageway through the substance of a bone
  47. fissure
    An elongate cleft
  48. Sinus or antrum
    A chamber within a bone, normally filled with air

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