CHM130 - General, Organic and Biochemistry

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gcasalett
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242480
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CHM130 - General, Organic and Biochemistry
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2013-10-26 18:49:52
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chemistry
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Cards for Durham Tech's CHM 130 class.
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  1. What's an ionic bond?
    A bond where on atom loses electrons and the other one gains them
  2. What's a covalent bond?
    A bond where two atoms share electrons
  3. Cation
    Atom losing electrons. In ionic compound names, the cation comes first
  4. Anion
    Atom gaining electrons. In ionic compound names, it's the second part of the name, plus add "ide" at the end.
  5. Polyatomic anions
    Function like regular anions when creating ionic compounds. Example: Nitrate (NO3-)
  6. Nitrate
    NO3-
  7. Carbonate
    CO32-
  8. Sulfate
    SO42-
  9. Phosphate
    PO43-
  10. Hydroxide
    OH-
  11. Bicarbonate or Hydrogen Carbonate
    HCO3-
  12. Acetate
    CH3CO2-
  13. Cyanide
    CN-
  14. Nitrite
    NO2-
  15. Hydrogen phosphate or biphosphate
    HPO42-
  16. Dihydrogen phosphate
    H2PO4-
  17. Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate
    HSO4-
  18. Sulfite
    SO32-
  19. Hydrogen sulfite or bisulfite
    HSO3-
  20. Amonium
    NH4+

    Only polyatomic cation we're studying
  21. Copper (I) sulfate
    Cu2SO4
  22. Copper (II) sulfate
    CuSO4
  23. Organic compounds
    They have carbon and usually hydrogen
  24. Meth-
    has one carbon
  25. Eth-
    has two carbons
  26. Prop-
    has three carbons
  27. But-
    has four carbons
  28. Isomers
    Same elements, different structures.
  29. Methanol
    CH3OH
  30. -ane
    has a single bond
  31. -ene
    has a double bond
  32. -yne
    has a triple bond
  33. -adiene
    has two double bonds
  34. -triene
    has three double bonds
  35. 1-butene
    CH2 = CH - CH2 - CH3
  36. 2-pentene
    CH3 - CH = CH - CH2 - CH3
  37. Ethyne
    H - C ☰ C - H
  38. 1,3-butadiene
    CH2 = CH - CH = CH2
  39. iso-
    means one of the carbons is not in line
  40. Acids
    Ionic compounds with hydrogen in front are acids. 

    Ex. HCl, H2S, H2SO4
  41. Acid + Base reaction?
    H20 plus a salt (ionic substance)
  42. pH
    • Acidity in a solution (or how much H+ is in it)
    • ex.
    • 0.1 M HCl 
    • 1x10-1 ↤take the exponent & change the sign:

    pH1
  43. Alcohol
    Organic compound where an OH has a single bond to a C
  44. Ethanol
    CH3CH2OH
  45. Methanol (wood alcohol)
    CH3OH
  46. Ethers
    Oxygen atom connected to two alkyls
  47. Dimethyl ether
    CH3 - O - CH3
  48. Methyl ethyl ether
    CH3 - O - CH2 - CH3
  49. Soluble compounds contain:
    • nitrates
    • acetates
    • ammonium (as cation)
    • Group 1 metals
    • Chlorides (not Ag+, Hg+, Pb2+, Hg2+)
    • Bromides (not Ag+, Hg+, Pb2+, Hg2+)
    • Iodides(not Ag+, Hg+, Pb2+, Hg2+)
    • Sulfates (Not Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+,Pb2+,Ag2+)
  50. Insoluble compounds contain:
    • Carbonates (except Group 1 metals or ammonium)
    • Phosphates (except Group 1 metals or ammonium)
    • Hydroxides (not Group 1 metals, Sr, Ba, ammonium)
  51. cyclo -
    Means atoms are arranged in a ring
  52. Nitrogen dioxide
    NO
  53. Dinitrogen tetroxide
    N2O4
  54. Molarity (M)
    Ex: Molarity of 5g LiCl?

    Li: 7g; Cl: 35.5g. 7+35.5 = 42.5g (one mole of LiCl)

    • 5g LiCl =    1M LiCl    = 0.12 M
    •                42.5 g LiCl
  55. % by volume
    [(volume of solute)/(volume of solution)] x 100%

    • Ex.
    • 5mL ethanol + 20mL H2O = 25mL
    • or 20% by volume solution
  56. Precipitation
    When mixing two soluble salts and we get an insoluble product
  57. Bases
    Ionic compounds with an OH

    Ex. NaOH, NH4OH, KOH
  58. Conjugate base
    After an acid dissociates, if one of the products can still have a proton added to it (so its charge is -), that's the acid's conjugate base.
  59. Acids have a pH of _________ than 7.
    less
  60. Bases have a pH of _________ than 7.
    more
  61. Buffer
    A mixture of an acid and its conjugate base, used to stabilize pH. 

    The base always has a cation (so it's mixed with something else).
  62. COOH
    Organic acid functional group.

    Ex. CH3COOH
  63. Ester
    Carbon bonded to one oxygen by a double bond and a second oxygen by a single bond; the second oxygen is also bonded to something not hydrogen.

    •           O
    •           ||
    • CH3 - C - O - CH2 - CH3
  64. Ketone
    Carbon double bonded to an oxygen that's not in line, and two other carbons

    •          O 
    •          ||
    • CH3 - C - CH3
  65. Aldehyde
    Carbon double bonded to an oxygen, single bonded to a hydrogen

    Name ends with "al" (methanal, ethanal, etc)
  66. Something is soluble if it contains:
    • Nitrates
    • Acetates
    • Ammonium (as a cation)
    • Group 1 metals
    • Chlorides (except Ag+, Hg+ (not Hg2+), Pb2+)
    • Bromides (except Ag+, Hg+ (not Hg2+),Pb2+)
    • Iodides (except Ag+, Hg+ (not Hg2+), Pb2+)
    • Sulfates (except Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Pb2+, Ag2+)
  67. Something is NOT solube if it contains:
    Carbonates (Except w/ Group 1 metals, ammonium)

    Phosphates (Except w/ Group 1 metals, ammonium)

    Hydroxides (Except w/Sr, Ba, Group 1 metals, ammonium)

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