Unit 4 Civil War and Reconstruction

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Unit 4 Civil War and Reconstruction
2013-10-27 19:36:39
Unit Civil War Reconstruction AP American History

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  1. Compromise 1850
    • ⇒California admitted as a free state
    • ⇒Slave trade prohibited in Washington D.C.
    • ⇒Texas loses boundary dispute with New Mexico
    • ↦No slavery restrictions in Utah or New Mexico territories
    • ↦Slaveholding permitted in Washington D.C.
    • ↦Texas gets $10 million
    • ↦Fugitive Slave Law
  2. William H. Seward
    U.S. politician, an antislavery activist in the Whig and Republican parties before the American Civil War and secretary of state from 1861 to 1869. He is also remembered for the purchase of Alaska in 1867—referred to at that time as “Seward’s Folly.”
  3. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
    Passed as part of the Compromise of 1850. It declared that all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters.Abolitionists nicknamed it the "Bloodhound Law" for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves.
  4. Daniel Webster
    A leader of the Whig Part In 1842, Webster successfully established the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, resolving a dispute between the United States and Great Britain regarding the Maine-Canada border. Webster oversaw the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act.
  5. Millard Fillmore
    Fillmore began his political career in the anti-Masonic party, but switched to the Whig Party through his association with Henry Clay. He became vice president under President Zachary Taylor, assuming the presidency after Taylor's death in 1850. As the 13th U.S. president, Fillmore was responsible for forcing open Japan to trade with the Treaty of Kanagawa.
  6. Personal Liberty Laws
    Passed by several U.S. states in the North to counter the Fugitive Slave Acts. Different laws did this in different ways, including allowing jury trials for escaped slaves and forbidding state authorities from cooperating in their capture and return.
  7. Underground Railroad
    A network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is also applied to the abolitionists who aided the fugitives.
  8. Harriet Tubman
    An African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. Tubman made more than nineteen missions to rescue more than 300 slaves using the the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled forwomen's suffrage.
  9. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    An anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War.
  10. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    Her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was a depiction of life for African Americans under slavery; It energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South.
  11. Ostend Manifesto
    A document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused. Ostend Manifesto proposed a shift in foreign policy, justifying the use of force to seize Cuba in the name of national security.
  12. Kansas–Nebraska Act
    Created the territories of Kansasand Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
  13. Stephen A. Douglas
    The designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. A nominee for President in the 1860 election, losing to Abraham Lincoln. Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858.
  14. Know Nothing Party
    It promised to purify American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. The largely middle-class membership fragmented over the issue of slavery.
  15. Bleeding Kansas
    A series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of Missouri between 1854 and 1861. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state. As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy warbetween Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery in the United States.
  16. Beecher's Bibles
    The name given to the breech loading Sharps rifles that were supplied to the anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas.
  17. John Brown
    A white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armoryat Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. Brown's trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.
  18. Frederick Douglass
    An African-American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing. He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.
  19. Charles Sumner
    A leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen.
  20. Dredd Scott v. Sanford 1857
    A landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans, whether slave or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court
  21. Roger B. Taney
    The fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He is most remembered for delivering the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
  22. Lecompton Constitution
    Set up that by vote Kansas would either be an entirely slave stated or an entirely free state. It was voted that it would be a free state.
  23. Lincoln–Douglas debates
    A series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Senator Stephen Douglas. Lincoln and Douglas were trying for their respective parties to win control of the Illinois legislature. The main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery.
  24. John Brown's Raid
    An attempt by the white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt in 1859 by seizing a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown's raid, accompanied by 20 men in his party, was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee.
  25. Robert E. Lee
    An American career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in theAmerican Civil War.
  26. John J. Crittenden
    American statesman best known for the so-called Crittenden Compromise, his attempt to resolve sectional differences on the eve of the American Civil War.
  27. Missouri Compromise
    Passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territorynorth of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
  28. Fort Sumter
    The bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War.
  29. General Beauregard
    A Louisiana-born American military officer, and the first prominent general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
  30. Causes of the Civil War
    • 1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South.
    • 2. States versus federal rights.
    • 3. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.
    • 4. Growth of the Abolition Movement.
    • 5. The election of Abraham Lincoln.
  31. The First Battle of Bull Run
    Union troops gathered around Washington D.C. in hope of seizing Manassas, VA, which was a vital railroad, but the Confederate troops aligned the creek waiting for Union forces at Bull Run.  This was the first large battle of the war.  The Confederate forces defeated the Union.
  32. The Battle of Antietam
    General Lee, commander of the Northern Virginia Army, moved to strike Union territory in Maryland.  A Confederate messenger dropped a copy of the battle plans, which was found by a Union soldier.  The Union then learned that Lee's forces were divided, so General Grant attacked.  Antietam (Sharpsburg) was a day long battle on September 17, 1862 at Antietam Creek in Maryland.  The battle ended in a draw.
  33. The Battle of Shiloh
    General Grant led his army into Tennessee and continued to advance.  Confederate forces attacked near Shiloh, resulting in thousands of casualties between both armies in two days of fighting.  The Union won the bloodiest battle of the Civil War, even though they suffered more losses than the Confederates.
  34. The Battle of Gettysburg
    The Confederates attacked, paving the way for the largest battle of the war, lasting three days.  The Union Army won the Battle of Gettysburg, destroying Lee's hopes of carrying the fighting further up North.
  35. Sherman's March to the Sea
    General Sherman scorched the towns he marched through on his way towards the Atlantic coast and up to Virginia.  His army followed the "scorched earth policy," beginning first with Atlanta.
  36. Surrender at Appomattox
    Sherman continued his burning through North Carolina with hopes of reaching Virginia.  But, General Lee attempted to halt the Union Army and break through Grant's lines in Petersburg, VA.  The Union seized Petersburg on April 2, 1865 and then Richmond on the next day.  Union forces cut Lee off from leading his remaining army to North Carolina.  On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to Grant.
  37. Results of the Civil War
    • 1. Emancipation of the Slaves
    • 2. A ruined southern economy
    • 3. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan
    • 4. Jim Crow Laws designed to deny blacks civil rights
    • 5. Increased animosity between North and South
  38. Clara Barton
    One of her greatest accomplishments was founding the American Red Cross.
  39. Jefferson Davis
    President of the secessionist Confederate States of America. He was later indicted for treason, though never tried, and remained a symbol of Southern pride until his death in 1889.
  40. General McDowell
    A career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first large-scale battle of the American Civil War.
  41. Stonewall Jackson
    A Confederate general during the American Civil War, and one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
  42. General George B. McClellan
    The great organizer of the Union Army of the Potomac.
  43. Trent Affair
    The USS San Jacinto, intercepted the British mail packet RMS Trent and removed, as contraband of war, two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell. The envoys were bound for Great Britain and France to press the Confederacy’s case for diplomatic recognition in Europe.
  44. Ulysses S. Grant
    The 18th President of the United States following his successful role as a general in the second half of the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military; the war, and secession, ended with the surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox.
  45. General Sherman
    A General in the Union Army during the Civil War, for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States.
  46. Fort Henry
    Fought on February 6, 1862, in western Middle Tennessee, during the American Civil War. It was the first important victory for the Union and Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Western Theater.
  47. Monitor and Merrimack
    Was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. It was fought over two days, March 8–9, 1862. The battle was a part of the effort of the Confederacy to break the Union blockade, which had cut off Virginia's largest cities, Norfolk and Richmond, from international trade.
  48. The Peninsular Campaign
    General McClellan was in command of Union Army.  He decided to approach Richmond from the Atlantic coast.  McClellan landed troops in Yorktown, which is a peninsula between the York and James River, east of Richmond.  There were battles fought there throughout July of 1862.  The Confederates defeated the Union in the battles, led by General Joseph E. Johnston, then General Robert E. Lee.
  49. Second Battle of Bull Run
    It was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run fought in 1861 on the same ground. Confederate victory.
  50. Emancipation Proclamation
    An executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as a war measure during the American Civil War, to all segments of the Executive branch  of the United States. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion.
  51. General Ambrose Burnside
    As a Union Army general in the American Civil War, he conducted successful campaigns in North Carolina and East Tennessee but was defeated in the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of the Crater.
  52. General Joe Hooker
    A career United States Army officer, achieving the rank of major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, Hooker is best remembered for his stunning defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863.
  53. Appattox Court House
    Where Grant accepted Robert E. Lee's surrender.
  54. Vicksburg
    The final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Vicksburg led by Lt. Gen.John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
  55. Wade-Davis Plan
    A bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South. In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln's more lenient Ten Percent Plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect.
  56. John Wilkes Booth
    A famous American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. He was also a Confederate sympathizer, vehement in his denunciation of Lincoln, and strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the United States.
  57. Proclamation of Amnesty
    Proclamation applied to all Confederate lands that the Union forces occupied at that point. The point of the Lincoln's proclamation was to set out how to restore the Confederate states and their citizens to the union once the civil war had ended.
  58. Black Codes
    Passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
  59. Thaddeus Stevens
    A fierce opponent of slavery and discrimination against African-Americans, Stevens sought to secure their rights during Reconstruction, in opposition to President Andrew Johnson. As chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee during the American Civil War, he played a major part in the war's financing.
  60. Joint Committee of Fifteen
    Played a major role in Reconstruction in the wake of the American Civil War. It was created to to make sure the confederate states could be admitted once again to congress. This committee also drafted the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and required southern states to approve that amendment before being readmitted to representation in Congress.
  61. Freedmen's Bureu
    A U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed freedmen in 1865–1872 during the Reconstruction era of the United States.
  62. Civil Rights Act of 1866
    mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War. The Act was enacted by Congress in 1865 but vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill. Although Johnson again vetoed it, a two-thirds majority in each house overcame the veto and the bill became law.
  63. Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
    The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.
  64. Tenure of Office
    Intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. Congress repealed the act in its entirety in 1887.
  65. Impeachment
    Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
  66. Carpetbagger
    In United States history, carpetbagger was a pejorative term Southerners gave to Northerners (also referred to as Yankees) who moved to the South during the Reconstruction era, between 1865 and 1877.
  67. Scalawag
    In United States history, scalawags were southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party after the American Civil War.
  68. William M. Tweed
    an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.
  69. Klu Klux Klan
    Advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism.
  70. 13th amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
  71. 15th amendment
    Prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to votebased on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
  72. Crédit Mobilier of America scandal
    In 1868 Congressman Oakes Ames had distributed Crédit Mobilier shares of stock to other congressmen, in addition to making cash bribes, during the Andrew Johnson presidency
  73. Salary Grab Act
    The Salary Grab Act was passed by the United States Congress on 3 March 1873. The effect of the Act was, the day before the second-term inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant, to double the salary of the President (to $50,000) and the salaries of Supreme Court Justices.
  74. Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 and the subsequent depression had several underlying causes, of which economic historians debate the relative importance. Post-war inflation, rampant speculative investments (overwhelmingly in railroads), a large trade deficit, ripples from economic dislocation in Europe resulting from the Franco-Prussian War, property losses in the Chicago and Boston fires.
  75. Compromise of 1877
    A purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era.
  76. The Jim Crow laws
    State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
  77. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    A landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".[1]
  78. Separate but equal
    A legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified systems of segregation.
  79. William Lloyd Garrison
    A prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the woman suffrage movement.
  80. Angelina Emily Grimké Weld
    An American political activist, abolitionist, women's rights advocate, and supporter of the women's suffrage movement.
  81. The Radical Republicans
    A faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854 (before theAmerican Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.