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What is the percentage for AA in the US?
- Chinese Americans = .9%
- Filipino = .7%
- Asian Indians = .6%
- Korean Americans = .4%
- Japanese Americans = .3%
which ethnic group was one of the earliest immigrants?
why did they come here?
in the 1800s, occupied low paying jobs
What is the Chinese Exclusion Act 1882?
Did this act last?
This act barred the entry of Chinese laborers
it was enforced until early 1900
Chinese claiming relations to those already in the US
b/c SF earthquake, burned documents and record thus it gave them a perfect opportunity to move into US
Why is it a dramatic change in sentiment among Chinese immigrants around WWII?
Chinese Americans were seen as more favorable in US b/c China was their alliance when US was @ war w/ Japan
What happened during the immigration act of 1965
what consequences did it create?
Chinese immigrants consisted primarily of professionals which led to the minority model
When did the Japanese first immigrated to American?
during the 1800s as contract farm laborers in Hawaii
occupied low paying jobs (migrants farm workers), yet not as destitute as their Chinese counterpart
Gentlemen's Agreement Act 1908
informal agreement between US and Japan
plan= US would not restrict Japanese immigration and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.
goal = reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations
The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
Japanese American men would marry the women in Japan to claim them as Americans
balanced ratio of M and W
2nd generation of Japanese Americans
reluctance faced by European Americans
What happened to the Japanese Americans during WWII?
forced relocation into internment camps
1. affect emotionally and physically
2. they still feel discriminated after
3.as a result, they strive to become as American as possible, apart from being Japanese American
What did South Asian worked as when they first immigrated to America?
farmers b/c they weren't allow to own land so they helped other American
What kind of loophole strategy did Asian Americans used?
since Asian Americans were racially unclassified, many choose to marry Mexican Americans to gain American identity
US v Bhagat Singh Thind
South Asian Americans were seen as non-White and could not be naturalized
Immigration Act of 1965
Brain Drain - train in own country but put skills on another country
Why did Koreans immigrate to America?
poor living conditions in Korea and the need for laborers in Hawaii led many to immigrate
What happened after the Korean war?
another wave of Korean immigrants came in the 1950s
primarily the wives of servicemen (war brides) and war orphans
What kind of experienced did Korean war orphans felt?
experienced not fitting in w/ others from their community and feeling different from their adopted families
What is the con of Immigration Act of 1965?
though professionally skilled, many Koreans were unable to find jobs due to language barriers
open up small businesses
Where was the Filipino Americans known as?
invisible Asian American group
What happened in the Philippines in 1898?
Philippines was colonized by the US in 1898
Filipinos were seen as Nationals (as part of US)
Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)
Filipinos were deemed as no longer “Nationals”
What cause Filipino culture to change?
Eastern and Western influence caused from combination of Spanish rule and colonization from the West
What is the first wave for Filipino culture?
- Laborers and college students (pensionados)
What is the second wave for Filipino culture?
- Families of war veterans
What is the third wave for Filipino culture?
- Both professionals and working class
Which group was comprised of refugees and voluntary immigrants?
What is the first wave for Southeast Asians?
each defined by a distinguishing set of circumstances and struggles
1975-1978: Elite group of SEA migrated
What is the second wave for Southeast Asians?
1978: diverse backgrounds, both upper class and less educated
What is the third wave for Southeast Asians?
1982: Orderly Departure Program – granted immigrant status rather than refugee status; released prisoners from camps and Amerasian children
How were South east Asians different amongst the other Asian Americans?
they were persecuted
seen as involuntary immigrant
didn't leave by choice compared to Koreans
this situation leave them a different outcome for the South east Asian
trauma and paranoid experience, even to the subsequent generation