Respiratory Patho

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  1. Lobar pneumonia definition
    • Fluid builds up in a specific lobe (congestion)
    • May consalidate
  2. Broncho pneumonia definition
    purulent exudate builds up in diffuse pattern in lungs
  3. Atypical pneumonia definition
    • Forms diffuse inflammation
    • no great amount of exudate
  4. Lobar pneumonia etiology
    streptococcus pneumonia
  5. Broncho pneumonia etiology
    many different bacteria
  6. atypical pneumonia etiology
    influenza virus or mycoplasma
  7. Clinical findings lobar pneumonia
    • Pleura inflammed
    • sudden/acute onset with fever/chills
    • rales/no breath sound
  8. Clinical findings broncho pneumonia
    • mild fever, insidious onset
    • productive cough, yellow green
    • dyspnea
  9. Clinical findings atypical pneumonia
    • fever, HA
    • Aching muscles
    • Non-productive cough
  10. Medical tx lobar pneumonia
    • antibiotics
    • penicilin
  11. medical tx broncho pneumonia
    • antibiotics
    • sputum culture
  12. medical tx atypical pneumonia
    self limiting usually
  13. COPD emphysema definition
    • Tissue degeneration and obstruction
    • debilitating
    • irreversible
    • progressive 
    • Cor pulmonate (R CHF) from vasoconstriction of pulmonary blood vessels
  14. emphysema patho
    • destruction of alveolar walls
    • inflated alveolar air spaces
    • lung tissue lost as blebs develop
    • decrease capillaries available
    • decrease elasticity of lungs
    • fibrosis and thickening of bronchial walls
    • difficultly with expiration (trapped air)
  15. emphysema etiology
    • cigarettes
    • air pollution
    • genetic (early onset
  16. emphysema clinical findings
    • insidious
    • dyspnea on exertion/rest
    • prolonged expiration
    • barrel chest from hyperinflation of lungs
    • anorexia, fatigue, wt loss
    • Hypoxia
    • Clubbed fingers
  17. Emphysema medical tx
    • avoidance of irritants (cigs)
    • nutrition/hydration
    • breathing techniques- pursed lips breathing
    • Bronchodilators
    • Antibiotics
    • O2
  18. Chronic Bronchitis etiology
    exposure to smoking and/or industrial pollution
  19. Chronic bronchitis clinical findings
    • constant productive cough especially in morning
    • SOB, tachypnea
    • rhonchi
    • hypoxia and cyanosis
  20. Chronic bronchitis medical tx
    • decreased exposure to irritants
    • expectorant
    • broncho dilator
    • postural draining/percussion
    • O2 low flow
  21. CF patho
    • Exocrine glads secrete excessive, thick, tenacious mucus in lungs and pancreas and lungs
    • sticky mucus obstructs ducts; in lungs the trapped air results in permanent dmg
    • provides excellent growth medium for bacterial growth
    • eventually respiratory failure or cor pulmonate (R CHF)
    • Blocking of pancreas ducts results in lack of digestive enzymes and malabsorption of food
    • my also effect liver, salivary glands, sweat glands, small intestine, reproductive system
  22. CF etio
    • Genetic 7th chormosome, autosomal recessive 
    • May be dx pre-natal
  23. CF clinical findings
    • meconium ilium at birth
    • salty taste on skin
    • malabsorption
    • stool changes (no wt gain) 
    • unable to absorb food
    • chronic cough/respiratory infections
    • hypoxia
    • chest over inflated (air trapped)
    • ex intolerant/fatigue
    • children not meet norm growth milestones
  24. CF dx tests
    • sweat
    • stool
    • xray
  25. CF med tx
    • team
    • enzyme replacement (pancreas)
    • well balanced diet, low fat
    • intense PT including postural drainage, percussion/cough instruction
    • aggressive tx of infetions
    • hydrating fluids (decrease mucus thickness)
    • O2
    • heart/lung implants
  26. Asthma definition
    • Episodic bronch constriction from inflam
    • may lead to perm dmg
    • 3 types
    • -Conventional
    • -Occupational
    • -Ex induced
  27. Astham patho
    • antigen binds with IgE on mast cells releasing histamine, prostaglandin, and other chemical mediators
    • Histamine causes constriction of smooth muscles (broncho constriction)
    • Inflam with edema and increase secretion of thick mucous may totally obstruct air flow
    • may develop hypoxia
    • status asmaticus- persistent severe attack, can be fatal.
  28. Asthma etio
    • Hypersensitive airways
    • internal causes
    • -genetic predisposition
    • external causes
    • -ex
    • -cold air
    • -cig smoke
  29. Asthma clinical findings
    • cough
    • dyspnea
    • tight chest
    • wheezing
    • thick tenacious mucus
    • tachycardia
    • respiratory failure; decrease responsiveness, decreased O2 and increased CO2
  30. Asthma Med tx
    • Avoid triggers
    • good ventilation/air exchange at work/home
    • breathing techniques to decrease anxiety and severity
    • for children regular swimming
    • inhalers; bronchodilator
    • drugs
    • -corticosteroids to decrease inflam
    • -preventative to decrease hypersensitive response
  31. Bronchiectasis
    • Usually secondary problem develops in condition such as CF or COPD
    • irreversible abnormal widening, primarily the medium sized bronchi
    • arise from recurrent infection and inflam in the airways
  32. TB infection patho
    • primarily infects lungs
    • bacteria become walled off in lungs
    • may carry but be dormant
    • with low resistance it may become active
    • lung tissue destroyed and bacteria spread to other tissue
  33. TB etio
  34. TB risk factors
    • malnutrition
    • crowding
    • alcohol and chronic disease
  35. TB tx
    long term drug tx
  36. Pulm edema patho
    • fluid in alveoli from high capillary pressure
    • difficulty expanding lungs and eventually collapse
  37. pulm embolus etio
    • usually thrombus dislodged from leg vein thrombo or phlebo
    • fat emboli from bone fx (trauma)
    • tumor embolism (cancer)
    • amniotic fluid (pregnancy especially, during delivery
    • Air emboli injected into vein
    • Immob/dehydration
  38. Pulm embolus clinical findings
    • Sudden onset of chest pain, tachypnea, dyspnea
    • SNS response- nervous, restless
  39. Pulm edema etio
    • L CHF
    • Kidney/liver disorders
    • inflam from inhaled toxic gases
  40. Pulm embolus tx
    • Preventitive with risk factors
    • If due to thromb then O2, heparin
  41. Atelectasis
    Collapse of lung or part of lung
  42. Atelectasis etio
    • obstruct of airflow from tumor, mucus
    • compress of lung
    • increased pleural cavity pressure
  43. Atelectasis clinical findings
    • If small no SnS
    • If large dyspnea, increased HR and RR, chest pain
  44. Types of obstructive diseases
    • Peripheral airway disease (COPD)
    • Chronic bronchitis (COPD)
    • emphysema (COPD)
    • Asthma
    • CF
    • Bronchioectasis
  45. Obstructive disease changes
    • narrowing and obstruction of airways
    • Inflam of airways
    • Destruction of alveolar and bronchial walls
    • Increase production and retention of mucus
    • Abnormal pulmonary function
  46. Obstructive disease impairments
    • Dyspnea on exertion (sob with exertion)
    • Chronic productive cough
    • Freq respiratory infections
    • Associated postural defects
    • Lung volume changes
  47. Restrictive diseases etio
    • Inability of the lungs to fully expand as a result of extrapulmonary/pulmonary disease or restriction (difficulty taking in a deep breath)
    • Lung volume changes
  48. Pulmonary causes
    • Tumor
    • Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (pneumonia, TB, asbestosis)
    • Edema or pulmonary embolism
    • Hyaline membrane disease
    • Normal aging
  49. Extrapulmonary sources
    • Chest wall pain secondary to trauma or surgery
    • Chest wall stiffness associated with extrapulmonary disease (scleraderma or ankylosing spondylitis)
  50. Postural deformities effecting pulmonary
    • Scoliosis and kyphosis
    • Ventilatory muscle weakness (neruopathic or myopathic)
    • -SCI, CP, PD, MD
    • Pleural disease
  51. Factors increasing restrictive pulmonary patho
    • General anesthesia
    • Intubation
    • Incisional pain
    • Pain med
    • General inactivity, weakness/fatigue
    • Hx of smoking
    • Thoracic surgery
  52. Tidal Volume (TV)
    • 500ml
    • Amount of air entering lungs with each normal breath
  53. Residual Volume (RV)
    • 1200ml
    • Amount of air remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
  54. Inspiratory Reserve (IRV)
    • 3000ml
    • Max volume of air inspired in excess of normal tidal volume
  55. Expiratory reserve (ERV)
    • 1100ml
    • Max volume of air expelled following a passive expiration
  56. Vital Capacity (VC)
    • 4600ml
    • Max amount of air expired following a max inspiration
  57. Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
    • 5800
    • Total volume of air in the lungs after max inspiration
Card Set:
Respiratory Patho
2013-10-24 22:45:47
PTA 210 Respiratory

Resp handout concerning the pathos
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