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Define a project
a) a temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end
b) Creates a unique product, service or result
c) All of the above
- Projects are always executed
What is a program?
- A group of related projects
- Coordination may decrease risk etc.
Describe the PMO?
An organization that centralizes the management of projects
Provides 1 of 3 roles
- 1. Policies and methodologies
- 2. Support and guidance
- 3. Project managers for different projects
Describe a portfolio?
A group of projects and/or programs used to achieve a specific strategic business goal
List unique things about project objectives
- Contained in project charter
- Projects considered complete when met
- A reason for terminating a project before completion is that the project objectives cannot be met
- Complete understanding of objectives is achieved over the length of the project
- The PM's role is to accomplish the project objective.
- Quality activities make sure the project meets its objectives.
- Risk management enhances opportunities & reduces threats to the project objectives.
- Watch & track items that could negatively impact the objective i.e. risk & stakeholder influence
- Projects often require trade-offs between requirements & objectives
- Determined in the initiating process & refined in planning process
- One purpose of the Develop Project Management Plan process is to determine how work will be accomplished to meet project objectives.
What is MBO?
Management by objectives
What is the MBO philosophy?
- 1. Establish unambiguous, realistic objectives
- 2. Periodic evaluation to see the objectives are met
- 3. Implement corrective action
What do Constraints help evaluate?
List common constraints?
Time, cost, risk, scope, quality, resources, customer satisfaction
What is OPM3?
PMI's Organizational Project Management Maturity Model. A certification of an Orgs PM maturity (like CMM)
What is a stakeholder?
People or organizations whose interests are + or - impacted
- Note: think of them as assistant team members
- Their role is heavily defined in the communication plan
What does Human Resource Management provide?
An understanding of roles on the project
For the purpose of taking the PMI Test, what is the default organizational structure?
Note: Organizational structures can be defined in terms of the PM's level of authority
What is Organizational Structure Theory?
It defines who has the power
What are the types of organizational structures?
Describe a functional organizational structure
- Grouped by areas of specialization
- Functional Manager has the control
- More emphasis on functional specialty than the project
Describe a projectized organizational structure
- Organized by project
- Loyal team
- More effective communications than a functional org
- No Home after project
- Duplication of facilities and job
- Less efficient use of resources
Describe a Matrix organizational structure
- Can be weak or strong
- Maximize strengths of both the functional and projectized forms
- Organized by project
- Highly visible project objectives
- Improved PM control over resources
- Maximum resource utilization
- More effective communications than functional org
- 2 bosses
- Extra admin needed
- Complex to Monitor and control
- Resource contentions
Who has the power in a Strong Matrix organizational structure
Power rests with the project manager
Describe the PM roles in a Weak Matrix organizational structure
- Project Expediter:
- Primarily a staff assistant and communications coordinator
- Cannot personally make or enforce decisions
- Project Coordinator:
- Has some power to make decisions
- Some authority
- Reports to a higher-level manager
Describe a Tight Matrix organizational structure
- Not an organization
- Refers to locating the offices for the project team in the same room.
What is a lifecycle?
A progression through a series of differing stages of development (there are 2 life cycles and 1 process)
What are the 2 lifecycles and what process is used?
- Product: From conception to withdrawal
- Conception, growth, Maturity, decline, withdrawal
: project life cycle for what is needed to do to complete the work
Project management process
for managing the project.
What are the Project Management Processes?
initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
Lessons Learned includes what type of information
What was done right
, done wrong
, could be done differently
- 3 areas
- Technical aspects
- Project management: success of WBS, risk planning, etc.
- Management: communications & leadership
When is the Project Manager Assigned
Prior to the beginning of the Planning phase
What process group is the "General product description" defined in
What is the near critical path
How can Cost Benefit Analysis be used
To determine which project is better
What does Cost Benefit Analysis measure
Initial cost plus future operating costs
What are Decision Models used for
What is the output of Define Scope and input to Create WBS
Project Scope Statement
The Process Improvement Plan is in what knowledge area and the output of which process
- Project Quality Management
- Plan Quality
What does Failure Cost indicate
Cost of poor quality
What is a Secondary Risk
the result of implementing a response to another risk
Manufacturing is considered a process as it is not temporary.
- Manufacturing a product is a process
- Manufactuing a process is a project
PM needs to prevent Problems
Not sepnd time solving problems
- produces the same product or produces a repetitive service and requires business process management
- supports the business
What is Rolling Wave planning
a project developed in steps aka iterative
What are the 6 primary competing constraints
Time, Cost, Resources, Risk, Quality, Scope (aka Customer Satisfaction)
What does PMO stand for
Program or Porject management office
When is Effective Leadership, Motiation and team bldg most critical
List the Decision Making types
Command, Consult, Consensus, Random
List the Decision Making Steps
Problem Definition, Problem Solution, Ideas to action (choose best soluion), Solution Action plan, Solutition Evaluation Plan, Evaluate how well the problem was solved
to Confer w/those of shared or opposed interests to reach an agreement If done well has a high value in project success
Scope Time Cost Baseline
Original plan plus approved changes, Use tools to measeure how performance deviates from the plan
Who should help solve Project Manager and Customer issues
What is the Triple Constraint (Iron Triangle)
- Scope, Time (schedule), Cost (Budget)
- look at all impacts when one needs change
Project Management Plan is the culmination of All planning Processes. 15 docs fused into 1. Name them.
Scope Management Plan, Scope Baseline, Requirements MP, Schedule MP, Cost MP, Quality MP, Process Improvement Plan, HR MP, Communications MP, Risk MP, Procurement MP, Schedule Baseling, Cost Perf. Baseline, Change MP, Config MP
Define what is a Project Management Plan
A single approved Document that guides Execution, Monitoring and Controlling and Closure
Define the Work Authorization System (WAS)
Part of the PMIS, ensures work is performed at the right time and right sequence
Enterprise Enviromental Factors
An input to most planning processes. They are things that impact but are not part of the organizational structure. (Organizational structure, Laws, Stakeholder risk tolerance, Organization work ethic)
Organizational Process assests
An input, policies, tools, templates (EPK, MPP), Knowledge DB's (Sharepoint) etc. A project should contribute to these assests
What is Work Performance Information
An input during execution that helps determine the status of deliverables, and performance against cost and schedule goals and quality
Common Tool on planning processes
PMIS Project Management Information System
Part of Enterprise Environmental Factors, Supports the PM to optimize scheduel, collect and distribute info, aide to produce and then track documents and deliverables. Is primarily software, (Config Mgmnt (version control)), Change Control System are part of PMIS
Change Requests as an ITTO
Common Output during executing and Monitor and Controll processes. Goes through Perform Integrated Change Control, Requires Impact evaluation, Are approved or rejected, If approved, baseline changes are needed (PMP, Scope, Cost, Schedule etc.)
Types of Change Requests are
- Corrective actions (change to bring future results in line w/plan)
- preventive actions (change made to avoid a problem
- defect repair
Common output during Planning, Executing, Montior and Controlling
PMI Processes follow the process of Project Management
Knowledge areas are project management framework, Project Management process plus the 9 knowledge areas.
What are the 2 methodologies to complete a project
- Project Lifecycle (needed to complete the work)
- PM Methodology (5 PM Processes for managing the project)
What are the project lifecycle Phase to Phase relationships
- Sequential - Reduce uncertainty but not the schedule
- Overlapping - Schedule Compression (fast tracking), increases risk and rework
- Iterative - good in undefined or rapidly changing env. disadv (no long term planning)