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Social Stratification refers to...
the ranking of people into a hierarchy in which the resources considered valuable by society are unequally distributed
Social Stratification also refers to a system...
wherein some people accumulate more societal resources than others
An example of social stratification...
- in some societies people are ranked and accumulate resources based on class
- in some societies people are ranked and accumulate resources based on caste
- in some societies people are ranked and accumulate resources based on race or ethnicity
Poverty refers to...
a deprivation of resources and an uneven distribution of the resources available
Poverty is also a typology of poverty definitions including the...
absolute definition of poverty, the relative definition of poverty, and the cultural definition of poverty
An example of poverty...
many people are poor because they do not have enough income or money to purchase the necessities of life
What are the three typology of poverty definitions?
- Absolute Definition of Poverty
- Relative Definition of Poverty
- Cultural Definition of Poverty
Absolute Deprivation Definition of Poverty refers to...
a fixed economic level below which people are considered poor
What level of poverty does not necessarily change as society on the whole becomes more or less affluent?
Absolute Deprivation Definition of Poverty
Absolute Deprivation Definition of Poverty includes a series of...
income cutoffs based on factors on factors that can increase a family's cost of living such as the size of the family
An example of Absolute Deprivation Definition of Poverty...
the Social Security Administration establishes the poverty level based on how much it costs to buy a nutritionally adequate diet and multiplying that figure by three
Relative Deprivation Definition of Poverty refers to...
the notion that people are poor relative to some standard, and that standard is partially shaped by the lifestyles of other citizens
Relative Deprivation Definition of Poverty includes the notion that...
people make observations around them, see what most others have, and assess their own lives based on that comparison
An example of Relative Deprivation Definition of Poverty...
a lack of indoor plumbing or dividing the population into fifths
Cultural Definition of Poverty refers to...
the notion that poverty has to be viewed in terms of how many resources people have and why they have failed to achieve a higher economic level
Cultural Definition of Poverty includes the notion that...
cultural norms can play a role in keeping people poor
An example of Cultural Definition of Poverty...
- some people are poor because they have few skills that would enable them to get a job
- some people are poor because they have young children at home and cannot afford day care while they work
- some people are poor because they have chosen to go to college and endure temporary low income
Structural Unemployment refers to...
a social condition wherein unemployment is part of the very structure of the economy
Capitalists often create a reserve labor force and a split labor market to drive down wages in which social condition?
Full Employment refers to...
a social condition wherein everyone or nearly everyone who wants to work can find a job
An example of Structural Unemployment would be...
the trickle down theory of economist Milton Friedman posed that 6% of all people looking for work in the USA must be kept unemployed
An example of Full Employment...
House of Representative Member Gus Hawkins tried for years to get a full employment bill passed in Congress but was unsuccessful due to the lobbying of capitalists and their representatives
Social Insurance refers to...
programs, offering benefits to broad categories of people, such as, the elderly or injured workers, who presumably were working and paying for the insurance before becoming eligible for it
An example of social insurance...
- a person receives SSDI after getting certified by a doctor and stays off work one year
- a person receives Social Security without a means test
- a person receives Medicare without a means test
Public Assistance refers to...
programs offering benefits to people who pass a means test based on income
An example of Public Assistance is...
- a person receives SSI after passing a means test
- a person gets TANF (Temporary Aid to Need Families) after passing a means test
- a person gets MediCal after passing a means test
- a person receives assistance from WIC after passing a means test
the network of social connections that exist between people, and their shared values and norms of behavior, which enable and encourage mutually advantageous social cooperation; such as, passing down knowledge and skills to others
Who created the term "split labor market"?