Brain and Cranial Nerves

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michaelirby98
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242554
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Brain and Cranial Nerves
Updated:
2013-10-24 01:46:02
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Brain
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Brain and cranial nerves anatomy
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  1. What are the 4 major brain regions
    • Brainstem
    • Cerebrum
    • Cerebellum
    • Diencephalon
  2. Prosenchephalon
    • The forebrain
    • Develops into telencephalon and diencephalon
  3. Mesencephalon
    • The midbrain
    • ONLY primary vesicle that does not form a new secondary vesicle
  4. Rhombencephalon
    • The Hindbrain
    • Develops into metencephalon and Myelencephalon
  5. Telencephalon
    • Secondary vesicle arises from prosencephalon 
    • Forms into cerebrum and lateral ventricles
  6. Metencephalon
    • Secondary vesicle 
    • Turns into pons, cerebellum and 4th ventricle
  7. Myelencephalon
    • Secondary vesicle 
    • Turns into medulla and 4th ventricle
  8. Diencephalon
    • Arises from prosencephalon 
    • Extends from brainstem to cerebrum 
    • Surrounds third ventricle
    • Forms thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  9. Two types of Neural tissue
    • Brain and spinal cord 
    • Gray matter - Un-myelinated axons
    • White matter - Myelinated axons
  10. Gray matter
    • Houses: motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies
    • Dendrites 
    • Telodendria 
    • Un-myelinated axons
  11. White Matter of Cerebrum
    • Contains myelinated axons arranged in tracts 
    • (Association, commissural, projection)
  12. Cerebral Nuclei
    • Cluster of internal gray matter; deep
    • Collectively termed Basal ganglia
    • Help initiate and terminate body movements
    • Suppresses unwanted movements & regulate muscle tone 
    • Oval shaped clusters of neuron cell bodies
  13. Ganglion
    Cluster of neuron cell bodies within PNS
  14. Protections of the brain
    • Cranium 
    • Cranial meninges- C.T. membranes 
    • CSF- Cushioning, nutritive fluid
    • Blood-brain barrier- Protections against blood borne harmful substances
  15. Cranial Meninges
    • Connective tissue layers that seperate soft tissue of brain from bones of cranium
    • Pia mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Dura Mater
  16. Dura Mater
    • Most external Cranial Meninge
    • Two layers: Periosteal(outer); Meningeal (deep)
    • Fused, except at dural sinuses - Drain venous blood away from brain
    • Forms folds at fissures (dura septa)
  17. Dura Septa
    • Three extensions of dura separate parts of the brain
    • Flax Cerebri
    • Flax Cerebelli
    • Tentorium Cerebelli
  18. Flax Cerebri
    • Type of dura septa 
    • Between cerebral hemispheres
  19. Flax Cerebelli
    • Type of dura septa 
    • Between cerebellar hemispheres
  20. Tentorium Cerebelli
    • Type of dura septa 
    • Between Cerebrum and cerebellum
  21. Arachnoid Mater
    • Middle meninx
    • Deep to subdural space
    • Separated from pia mater with arachnoid space
    • Fibers called arachnoid trabeculae 
    • (Collagen and elastic fibers; attach to pia mater )
    • Deep to the trabeculae is the Subarachnoid space 
    •  
  22. Subdural space
    • A potential space between arachnoid mater and overlying dura mater 
    • If filled with blood of fluid - Subdural hematoma 
  23. Pia Mater
    • Deepest meninx
    • Highly vascular areolar C.T.
    • Tightly adhered to surface of the brain
  24. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Clear fluid similar to blood plasma 
    • Formed by choroid plexus 
    • Transportation, buoyancy and protection
  25. Circulation of CSF
    Lateral ventricles > Interventricular froamina > third ventricle > cerebral aqueduct > forth ventricle > central canal
  26. Blood Capillaries (BBB)
    • Tight junction between endothelial cells
    • Thick, continuous basement membrane
  27. Processes of Astrocytes (BBB)
    • Press against capillaries 
    • Secrete chemicals influencing permeability
  28. Substances the cross the BBB
    • Gases, alcohol, anesthetics
    • Glucose (via active transport)
  29. Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Two halves
    • Joined by corpus collosum
    • Divided by longitudinal fissure 
    • Contain Gyri(folds) and Sulci(Grooves)
    • Asymetric
  30. Frontal Lobe
    • Personality 
    • Higher thought
    • Speech
    • Voluntary movement 
  31. Parietal Lobe
    Cutaneous sensation
  32. Occipital Lobe
    • Vision
    • Visual Memories
  33. Temporal Lobe
    • Hearing
    • Smell
  34. Insula
    • Interpretation of taste
    • Emotional memory
  35. Association tracts
    Between gyri in same hemisphere
  36. Commissural tracts
    Between gyri across hemispheres
  37. Projection tracts
    Between cerebrum and lower brain regions
  38. Epithalamus
    • Contains:
    • Pineal gland- Secretes melatonin
    • Nuclei- responses to odors
  39. Thalamus
    • Paired oval masses of gray matter 
    • Interthalamic adhesion joins lobes 
    • Filters out unnecessary incoming sensory information
    • Relays sensory information destined for cerebral cortex
  40. Hypothalamus
    • Inferior to thalamus 
    • Attached to pituitary by infundibulum 
    • Master control of ANS
    • Body temp regulation
    • Control of food & water intake 
    • Emotional control center
    • Regulates sleep awake cycle
  41. Brainstem
    • Between diencephalon & spinal cord 
    • Contains sensory & motor tracts
    • Includes: Mensencephalon(midbrain), Pons, medulla oblongata
  42. Gnostic area
    • Composed of regions of occipital, temporal and parietal lobes 
    • Integrates sensory, visual, and auditory information
  43. Wernicke Area
    • Involved in recognizing, understanding and comprehending spoken or written language 
    • Must work together with motor speech area
  44. Midbrain
    • Nuclei with sensory reflex centers that coordinate movements of head, eyes, and trunk
    • Cerebral aqueduct
  45. Pons
    • Carries sensory & motor info between medulla and midbrain
    • Connects midbrain to cerebellum
    • Respiratory center
  46. Medulla Oblongata
    • Centers for respiration, heart rate, blood vessel diameter 
    • Vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, hiccuping 
    • Connects spinal cord & brain
  47. Cerebellum
    • Two hemispheres with central vermis
    • Outer cortex or gray matter; deep white matter (arbor vitae)
    • Transverse fissure w/tentorium cerebelli separates cerebrum & cerebellum 
    • Governs subconscious aspects of skeletal muscle movements 
    • Flocculondoular lobes
  48. Flocculonodular lobes
    Contribute to equilibrium and balance
  49. Vermis
    • A thin band separating cerebellar hemispheres
    • Receives sensory info reporting torso position and balance
  50. Superior vs Inferior Colliculi
    • Superior- Helps visually tract objects and control reflexes such as turning head or body
    • Inferior- Control reflective turning to auditory stimuli
  51. Reticular Formation 
    • Net like of gray and white matter in brainstem & lower diencephalon
    • includes sensory neurons that project into cerebral cortex
    • Helps maintain consciousness
    • Helps maintain muscle tone 
  52. Limbic System
    • Ring of gray metter around upper brainstem and diencephalon
    • "Emotional brain" - plays primary role in wide range of emotions
    • Contributes to memory 
  53. Cranial Nerves 
    • 12 pairs 
    • Originate from eyes, nose, inner ear, brain stem & spinal cord 
  54. Sensory nerves (3)
    • CN I - Olfactory 
    • CN II - Optic 
    • CN VIII- Vestibulochlear
  55. Motor Nerves (4)
    • CN III - Oculomotor 
    • CN IV- Trochlear 
    • CN VI- Abducens 
    • CN XI- Accessory 
  56. Mixed Nerves (4)
    • CN V- Trigeminal 
    • CN VII- Facial 
    • CN IX- Glossalpharyngeal 
    • CN X - Vagus 
  57. Nerve classification mnemonic 
    • Oh (olfactoy)
    • Once (optic)
    • One (Olculomotor)
    • Takes (Trochlear)
    • The (Trigeminal)
    • Anatomy (Abducens)
    • Final (Facial)
    • Very (Vestibulocohlear)
    • Good (Glossalpharyngeal)
    • Vacations (Vagus)
    • Are (Accessory)
    • Heavenly (hypoglossal) 
  58. Nerve Function mnemonic 
    Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Boobs Matter More

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