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What was the majority of Asian American immigrants prior to 1965?
primarily males and laborers
What happened during to Asian Americans toward the post of 1965 immigration Act?
- skilled professionals
- civil right movement = equal rights for all
What was the national landscape of the 1960's?
challenged race relations
Dec 26, 1966: US News and World Report printed a story titled “Success Story of One Minority in the U.S.”
Similar piece in the New York Times about Japanese Americans
criticisms of model minority
unwarranted assumptions about the progress of Asian Americans
- Disaggregating data
- Comparisons between AA and their White counterparts were not equal
tensions were generated with the underlying message that other minorities should stop complaining and work hard to achieve the American Dream
Racial Triangulation Theory
AA even w/ hard work, they are still not seen as American
creates a notion of who's smarter and works harder
White American, Hispanic/African American are grouped as the Americans while Asians are excluded
exaggerated belief associated w/ certain category
mistreatment of a person or a group of ppl. on the basis of his/ her racial/ethnic category
bias against or in favor a group of ppl. based upon that group's categorization
ex. MM is valuing AA as more outstanding than Hispanics/African Am. which put a disadvantage to other group
behavior toward ppl. based on their categoization
When does racism against AA usually occur?
during political conditions
What happened during 1940s?
WWII & bombing of Pearl Harbor which brought discrimination toward Japanese Americans
What happened during the 1950s?
Korean war directed tension to wives & orphans
What happened during the 1959-1975?
- Vietnam War
- the policy made the veterans feel unpleased b/c veterans cannot speak their experience
- resulting to post traumatic disorder
What happened during the 1980s?
the Japan auto-industry were out performing US which caused Detroit's industry ppl. to lose jobs thus ppl. directed anger at AA
significant acts during 1882-1942
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Gentlemen's Agreement Act 1908
Immigration Act of 1924
Executive Order 90066 (1942)
What was the Immigration Act of 1924?
set quota of how many Asian immigrants can immigrate
check by who is allow to come by different countries
certain # from each part of the world are allowed
What is a significant example of prejudice & discrimination to Japanese?
- executive order of 9066Removal of all those who were of Japanese ancestry
2/3 imprisoned were U.S. citizens by birth
considered to be a "military necessity"
How likely were AA picked on?
AA are easily picked b/c of their physical appearance
and the fact that Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor
What kind of psychological consequences did AA develop?
- uncertainty of the future
- breakdown of family role structures
- feeling of shame & humiliation
- self blame
- anxiety of being separated from family
- self conscious about their heritage (set aside from their culture and become more American)
- lowered sense of self esteem
What happened to the Japanese Americans during the 1980s?
less apparent racism direct @ Japanese Americans
Which ethnic group is labeled as the "economic enemy"?
AA were exerting their identities by labeling pins that they are not Japanese Americans
What is the dot-busters?
The Dotbusters was a hate group in Jersey City, New Jersey, that attacked and threatened South Asians in the fall of 1987.
Racism against South Asians
- post 9/11
- Sikh community (hate crime towards South Asians, Arab Am., Muslim, or Sikh ~ ppl. recognize their appearance and assume they are terroists from the Middle East)
- racial profiling
How are AA portray in the media?
How are AA seen as perpetual foreigner?
actors making accents
speaking broken English
unsure about cultural conventions
non-stereotypical individuals ridiculed
How are AA portrayed as mysterious?
different from Americans
they are less known
Why are Asian American seen as exotic?
typically applied to AA women
AA are desirable for sexual pleasures/potential seductresses
Why are Asians label as invisible?
more often villains, rarely heroes
given more background roles