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events predetermined by some higher order or plan
no control; outside of self
events depend on cause
belief that some events causes another event
cause and effect
person has choice as to what she/he can do
ppl. who can act in accordance w/ personal motives
cultures tend to differ on four major value dimensions
- individuals orientation v. collectivistic orientation
- power distance
- uncertainty avoidance
- masculine vs femininity
independent self who strives to master and shape the personal & social environment to align w/ one's personal wants & needs
value being unique & original & to be better than others
more extended sense of self
understood in relation to a physical & social envi. w/ which one seeks to adapt to and accommodate rather than master
want to fit in w/ other ppl. and have similar points
identity overlapse others
choices are considered for others b/c it might affect their family
needs before others than the needs for self
What are the differences in societal behaviors b/t individuals & collectivistic culture?
- individualistic - higher rates for alcoholism, homicide, divorced and juvenile frequency
- provide the most aid compare to collectivistic
- collectivistic - higher incidents of genocide and ethnic group violence
- (concern of whose my in and out group)
- emphasis on status & hierarchy
- emphasis on equal relations
threat of ambiguous situations
in certain culture, some emphasize or hide the ambiguity
Masculine vs. Feminity
emotional roles that are common in a particular cultural setting
competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism
some culture might be more aggressive
focus on relationships & connecting w/ others
confucianism & buddhism norms socialize the individual to be harmonious w/ nature
emphasis placed on not disrupting the group harmony
not good to confront/reject others
a person's set of socially sanctioned claims concerning one's social integrity
roles that one carries out as a member & representative of a group
What does face represent?
the person's social position or prestige gained by performing one or more specific social roles that are well recognized by others
the "approval" of others = meeting the standards appropriate for his/her roles secure face & preserves interpersonal harmony
what kind of emphasis is associated with face?
emphasis on face is associated w/ values of modesty & fitting in and not standing out from the group
self effacing vs. self promoting
minimizing one's own ability to make others feel okay
- bragging about oneself
- talking big to overcompensate what they are lacking
Why is saving face important?
retain integrity = retain face
be modest = preserve inner personal harmony = more competent
Accommodations vs. Mastery
In American society, if something's wrong, the individual attempts to control it or master it
In Asian societies, if something's wrong, the individual needs to accommodate or adapt to it
differences in control orientation
primary control = directly changing the circumstance
secondary control = accommodation & acceptance
What is the disadvantage of primary control?
primary controllers disrupts interpersonal harmony
What is the advantage of secondary control?
preserves group's harmony
direct vs. indirection emotional expression
cultural differences in the language of emotion: how emotion is expressed
What type of emotional expressions do AA use?
indirect emotional expression through verbal means but by a sequence of physical gestures/actions
ex. paying for children's wedding financial needs
What type of emotional expressions do 1st generation rely on?
direct emotional expressions that is more acculturated
individuals tend to be more verbally oriented & less gesture orientated
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