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After implanting into the endometrial layer, embryos begin to secrete ___.
___ tests for pregnancy are very accurate and give almost immediate results.
___ pregnancy tests measure hormone levels (hCG).
Difinitive clinical evidence of pregnancy obtained at ___-___ weeks by ultrasound.
Fertile couples who have sex w/o contraception several times a week: ___% chance of pregnancy in 1 year.
___% chance per month
If coitus takes place on the same day as ovulation, there is a ___% chance of pregnancy on that day.
cervical mucus, body temperature
The fertile window surrounding ovulation is up to ___ days prior to ovulation.
Can check ___ ___ or basal ___ ___.
Mucus, the consistency of which varies around the menstrual cycle, secreted by glands in the cervix.
Basal Body Temperature (BBT)
body temperature measured in the morning before getting out of bed. Rises on the day after ovulation.
Subfertility and Infertility are common: about ___%
- Sex chromosome
Sub/Infertility in MEN
can be caused by:
- - ___ testes
- - ___ ___ abnormalities
- - ___ of testes (laptops)
- - clothing that's too ___
- - ___ exercise
- - ___
- Reproductive Tract
Sub/Infertility in WOMEN
can be caused by:
- - Abnormalities of ___ ___
- - Failure to ___
an assisted reproduction technique that involves the placement of semen in the vagina or uterus with the aid of a syringe or small tube.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
any of a variety of assisted reproduction techniques in which fertilization takes place outside the body.
implantation of a fetus at a location other than the uterus
9 months and 1 week - 291 days
Pregnancy lasts for ___ M ___ W (___ D)
Birth is usually ___-___ days longer than this.
During the First Trimester, the embryo ___ in the ___ wall.
During the First Trimester
, women experience:
- - ___ tenderness
- - Frequent ___
- - ___ difficulties
- - Backaches
- - Morning Sickness
- - Fatigue
- - Mood Swings
a woman's issues with memory during pregnancy
___ ___ are the leading cause of maternal death in the first trimester.
The recommended amount of weight gain during pregnancy is ___-___lbs.
Possible consequences of ___ use during pregnancy:
- - Spontaneous Abortion
- - Premature Birth
- - Low Birth Weight
- - Addiction to ___ in the newborn
- - Sudden Infant Death
Vitamin A and D
Excessive amounts of ___ and ___ during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Malformations
Androgens and Estrogens
Excessive amounts of ___ and ___ during pregnancy can lead to abnormalities of external genitalia and reproductive tract, especially in females.
Street Drugs (Heroine, Methamphetamine, cocaine)
Use of ___ ___ (___, ___, ___) during pregnancy can lead to:
- - Spontaneous Abortion
- - Low Birth Weight
- - Respiratory Depression on newborn
- - Addiction in newborn
Use of ___ during pregnancy can lead to a possible impairment of neuronal survival in the fetal brain.
The Second Trimester begins at ___ weeks.
- Quickening fetal movements (felt by mother) begins
- Ultrasound scans and ___ sampling can be performed
the sampling of the amniotic fluid for purposes of prenatal diagnosis
Amniotic (fluid) Sac
When a woman's "water breaks," it refers to the ___ ___.
A fetus also prepares for birth:
- - Secretes ___
- - Moves into a ___-___ position deep in the pelvis (___)
Labor happens in ___ stages.
In Stage __ of Labor:
- the cervix begins to thin out and open up (should dilate to about ___cm./___in.)
thinning of the cervix in preparation for childbirth
in childbirth, the expansion of the cervical canal
infusion of morphine-like drug or local anesthetic into back
Type of epidural which takes about 20 minutes - woman can't feel anything or move
Type of epidural where a woman is only slightly numbed and which takes about 2 minutes
The ___ stage of labor may last a few minutes to several hours. Involves passage of fetus through the birth canal.
- babies' heads are getting larger
A cesarean section is a surgical incision in the mother's ___.
It's become more common now that . . .
delivery of the placenta ("afterbirth")
Stage 3 of Labor is . . .
sustained intense sadness, disordered thinking, and/or depressive psychosis
Mother should wait ___ ___ to engage in sex after childbirth
prolactin and oxytocin
Lactation influenced by hormones ___ and ___.
supports the infant's immune system
energy and nutrients
growth and development
In the first 2 weeks after birth, breast milk (colostrum) composition initially . . .
After, breast milk changes to provide ___ and ___ to promote ___ and ___.
the milk produced during the first few days after birth - more clear
- Sugar- Fat- Proteins- Amino Acids- Vitamins
Breast Milk is composed of:
- viral infections
Breast-feeding is advantageous for the health of baby and mother; but it also has several disadvantages:
- - Pain and Infection in breasts
- - Transmission of ___ ___ and ___ from mother to baby
Less than half of the births in the United States are planned ... only about ___%
An IUD as birth control can lead to ___ pregnancy and ___ from the string that hangs out
- at the end of the 19th century
- the 1930s
Rubber condoms became available ___; and latex became available in ___
___ cover the cervix.
Early ones were natural objects (i.e. lemons). The acidity had some ___ action.
Feminists such as ___ ___ campaigned to legalize contraception in the U.S.
blowing into them
Early condoms were made of ___ ___; and were so expensive they were often reused. They were tested for holes by ___.
___% of pregnancies in the US are spontaneous abortions
___% of pregnancies in the US become induced abortions
___% of births in the US are unwanted or mistimed
Barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps block ___ from the ___.
Spermicide + barrier = Good
Spermicide Alone = Bad
Although highly effective at preventing ___, hormonal methods do not offer protection against ___.
Contraceptive pills contain either a combination of ___ and ___, or ___ alone
FSH and LH
The hormones in contraceptive pills inhibit the secretion of ___ and ___ from the ___, blocking ___maturation and ovulation.
The effects of contraceptive pills on the uterus include reduced ___ ___ and secretion of thick ___ ___.
Continuous use of combination contraceptive pills eliminates ___ ___
___-___ pills have fewer side effects than combination pills, and require ___ care in use.
- Usually does not stop ___ for most women
- makes ___ ___ hostile for sperm
___ ___ is administered by injection and lasts 3 months
___ ___ contain an estrogen and a progestin and last a week
___ ___ release estrogen and progestin and lasts 3 weeks
___ release progestins and are extremely reliable, but expensive ... also must be inserted and removed by a prefessional
the 6-day period leading up to and including the day of ovulation
Fertile windows can be assessed via
a rhythm method of contraception that uses the measurement of basal body temperature and the testing of cervical mucus to determine the time of ovulation and the fertile window
- on the day of ovulation, temperature ___ slightly
- on the day after ovulation, temperature ___ abruptly by at least ___ degrees C (___ degrees F)
- unprotected sex can resume 2-3 days after
The abstinence period during behavioral methods of contraception can be as long as ___ days per month for women with irregular menstrual cycles.
Emergency contraception, taken up to 5 days after coitus, reduces the likelihood of pregnancy by ___-___%
The ___ in plan B prevents ovulation and may also disrupt sperm transport, fertilization, and/or implantation
IUD insertion up to ___ days after coitus prevents implantation
surgical methods to prevent sperm from reaching ova
female sterilization by tying off the oviducts
Vas Deferens is cut and tied on both sides
In a vasectomy, the ___
- it's safer, cheaper, and simpler than tubal ligation
About ___% of all sterilization procedures are performed on women
the conceptus is destroyed and removed by suction
- preferred surgical method of abortion in first trimester
- accounts for great majority of abortions in the US
Dilation and Evacuation (D&E)
involves the opening of the cervix and scraping out the contents of the uterus using a curette (spoon-like instrument)
surgical method of abortion in second trimester
approximately ___% of women and ___% of men categorize themselves as exclusively/mostly heterosexual
Believed that homosexuality resulted from the disruption of "normal" psychosexual development (i.e. parental influence)
Social Constructionist Theory
Sexual orientation has been attributed to socialization and early sexual experiences
Early ___ exposure may predispose an individual to become lesbian
Gynephile - associated with ___ men and ___ women
Androphile - associated with ___ men and ___ women
- cell group region of the medial preoptic area
- found in the front of the hypothalamus; and is linked with homosexuality
(typically larger in males than in females)
1973 in the DSMII
Homosexuality was classified as a disorder in the DSM by early sexologists but was declassified in ___ in the DSM ___
, homosexuals were thought of as ___ ___
- - men want to be women
- - women want to be men
a gay Jewish doctor and sexologist - Germany 1897
- main figure behind Scientific-Humanitarian Committee
1969 New York City
Stonewall Inn - the Stonewall Riot happened in ___
First openly gay man to be elected to city Government in the United States - 1977
In 1980s, AIDs considered a gay disease - over ___% "gay" men had the disease.
About ___ thousand died from AIDs by 2006
come out of the closet and involve themselves in LGBT movement
The AIDs epidemic caused many homo- and bi-sexuals to
1983 - ___% of American "know" a gay person
2000 - ___%
Gay people state ___ pleasure and ___ intimacy are the main reasons for sex
___ % of lesbian couples and ___% of gay couples have at least one child
a form of male to female transexuality characterized by a man's sexual arousal at the thought of being or becoming a woman
sexual arousal by objects, materials, or parts of the body
fetishistic attraction to specific parts of the body
a paraphilia involving spying on persons while they are undressing, naked , or engaged in sex
- "peeping tom"
A tendency to develop a paraphilia may be inherited ...
about ___% have a parent with a paraphilia
Paraphiliacs have deficiencies in their ___ ___ anatomy compared to controls
Previously "normal" people can develop abnormal sexual desires after brain damage - especially in the ___ ___
- also including the ___ ___ or from ___ ___
Traits such as ___ or ___ may make the development of paraphilias more likely
Relapse Prevention Theory
Psychotherapeutic approaches are aimed at preventing repeat offenses
Paraphilic Courting "procedure"
Depo-Provera, Lupron, and ___ ___ antagonists are prescribed either to lower ___ levels or to block ___ all together
SSRI (selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
___ are used in the treatment of depression and to reduce/eliminate paraphilic desires and behaviors
Surgical Castration to remove a man's main source of ___ is a treatment of last resort.
Relatively effective - only 1-7% of multiple offense offenders will recidivate after surgery