Midterm review

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Renicheal
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242580
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Midterm review
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2013-10-24 03:35:57
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medical terminology
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Chapters 1,2,3,4,5,6,7, and 10
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  1. What are the 4 medical word elements?
    • word root
    • combining form
    • suffix
    • prefix
  2. A word root is
    the foundation of a medical term and contains its primary meaning
  3. 4 things that greek roots describe
    • disease
    • condition
    • treatment
    • diagnosis
  4. latin roots describe
    anatomical structure
  5. Combinging form is
    • when a word root is combined with a vowel
    • Usually and "o" or "I"
  6. Suffix is
    a word element placed at the end of the word
  7. Suffix usually describes 5 different things
    • a pathology (disease or abnormality)
    • symptom
    • surgical
    • diagnostic
    • part of speech
  8. Prefix is
    • attached at the beginning of a word
    • (not in all medical terms)
  9. 5 things a prefix usually indicates
    • number
    • time
    • position
    • direction
    • negation
  10. 3 steps to define medical word
    • 1. define suffix
    • 2.define first part
    • 3. define middle parts
  11. -Centesis
    Surgical Puncture
  12. -Clasis
    To Break; Surgical Fracture
  13. -desis
    Binding, fixation (Of a bone or joint)
  14. -Ectomy
    Surgical Removal, Excision
  15. -Lysis
    Seperation, destruction; loosening
  16. -pexy
    Fixation (of an organ)
  17. -plasty
    Surgical Repair
  18. -rraphy
    Suture
  19. -Stomy
    Forming an artificial Opening
  20. -tome
    Instrument to cut
  21. -tomy
    Incision
  22. -tripsy
    Crushing
  23. -gram
    Record, writing
  24. -graph
    Instrument for recording
  25. -graphy
    Process of Recording
  26. -meter
    Instrument for measuring
  27. -metry
    Act of measuring
  28. -scope
    instrument for examining
  29. -scopy
    Visual examination
  30. -algia
    pain
  31. -dynia
    pain
  32. -cele
    hernia; swelling
  33. -ectasis
    dilation, expansion
  34. -edema
    swelling
  35. -emesis
    vomiting
  36. -emia
    blood condition
  37. -gen
    forming, producing, origin
  38. -genesis
    forming, producing, origin
  39. -iasis
    abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
  40. -Itis
    inflammation
  41. -lith
    stone, calculus
  42. -malacia
    softening
  43. -megaly
    enlargement
  44. -oma
    tumor
  45. -osis
    abnormal condition; increase (used primary with blood cells)
  46. -pathy
    disease
  47. -penia
    decrease, deficiency
  48. -phagia
    eating, swallowing
  49. -phasia
    speech
  50. -phobia
    fear
  51. -plasia
    formation, growth
  52. -plasm
    formation, growth
  53. -plegia
    paralysis
  54. -ptosis
    prolapse, downward displacement (drooping)
  55. -rrhagia
    Bursting forth
  56. -rrhage
    Bursting forth
  57. -rrhea
    flow or discharge
  58. -rrhexis
    rupture
  59. -schlerosis
    abnormal condition of hardening
  60. -spasm
    twitching
  61. -stenosis
    narrowing
  62. -toxic
    poison
  63. -trophy
    nourishment, development
  64. -ac
    pertaining to
  65. -al
    pertaining to
  66. -ar
    pertaining to
  67. -ary
    pertaining to
  68. -eal
    pertaining to
  69. -ic
    pertaining to
  70. -ical
    pertaining to
  71. -ile
    pertaining to
  72. -ior
    pertaining to
  73. -ous
    pertaining to
  74. -tic
    pertaining to
  75. -esis
    condition
  76. -ia
    condition
  77. -ism
    condition
  78. -iatry
    medicine, treatment
  79. -ician
    specialist
  80. -ist
    specialist
  81. -y
    condition, process
  82. -icle
    small
  83. -ole
    small
  84. -ule
    small
  85. 4 Suffix types
    • Surgical
    • diagnostic
    • pathological
    • grammatical
  86. Compound words
    are words that contain more then one word root
  87. Surgical Suffix describes
    a type of invasive procedure performed on a body part
  88. Diagnostic suffix describes
    procedure performed to identify the cause and nature of an illness
  89. Pathological suffix describes
    an abnormal condition or disease
  90. Grammatical suffixes are
    attached to word roots to form parts of speech
  91. Inter-
    • between
    • (Position)
  92. post-
    • after
    • (Position)
  93. pre-
    • before, in front of
    • (Position)
  94. pro-
    • before, in front of
    • (Position)
  95. retro-
    • backward behind
    • (Position)
  96. Bi-
    two
  97. dipl-
    double
  98. diplo-
    double
  99. hemi-
    half
  100. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  101. macro-
    large
  102. micro-
    small
  103. mono-
    one
  104. uni-
    one
  105. multi-
    many, much
  106. poly-
    many, much
  107. nulli-
    none
  108. primi-
    first
  109. quadri-
    four
  110. tri-
    three
  111. ab-
    • away from
    • (direction)
  112. ad-
    • toward
    • (direction)
  113. circum-
    • around
    • (direction)
  114. peri-
    • around
    • (direction)
  115. dia-
    • through, across
    • (direction)
  116. trans-
    • through, across
    • (direction)
  117. ecto-
    • outside, outward
    • (direction)
  118. exo-
    • outside, outward
    • (direction)
  119. extra-
    • outside, outward
    • (direction)
  120. endo-
    • in, within
    • (direction)
  121. Intra
    • in, within
    • (direction)
  122. para-
    • near, beside, beyond
    • (direction)
  123. super-
    • upper, above
    • (direction)
  124. supra-
    • above, excessive, superior
    • (direction)
  125. ultra-
    • excess, beyond
    • (direction)
  126. a-
    • without, not
    • (used before consonant)
  127. an-
    • without, not
    • (used before a vowel)
  128. anti-
    against
  129. contra-
    against
  130. brady-
    slow
  131. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  132. eu-
    good, normal
  133. hetero-
    different
  134. homo-
    same
  135. homeo-
    same
  136. mal-
    bad
  137. pan-
    all
  138. pseudo-
    false
  139. syn-
    • union, together, joined
    • (appears as sym- before "b, p, ph, or m")
  140. tachy-
    rapid
  141. 4 Prefix types
    • position
    • number
    • measurement
    • direction
  142. 5 levels of organization
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • system
    • organism
  143. 3 planes of the body
    • Midsagittal (median)
    • Coronal (frontal)
    • Transverse (superior and inferior)
  144. Anatomical division of the midsagittal
    right and left halves
  145. anatomical division of the coronal
    anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
  146. anatomical division of the transverse
    superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
  147. 2 main cavities
    • Dorsal (posterior)
    • ventral (anterior)
  148. Dorsal includes
    cranial and spinal cavities
  149. ventral includes
    thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  150. RUQ
    Right upper quadrant
  151. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  152. RLQ
    Right lower quadrant
  153. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  154. Left Hypochondriac
    upper left region beneath the ribs
  155. epigastric
    Region above the stomach
  156. Right hypochondriac
    upper right region beneath the ribs
  157. Left Lumbar
    left middle lateral region
  158. umbilical
    region of the naval
  159. right lumbar
    right middle lateral region
  160. left inguinal
    left lower lateral region
  161. hypogastric
    lower middle region beneath the naval
  162. right inguinal
    right lower lateral region
  163. 4 major tissues in body
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  164. Anatomical position
    body posture used to locate anatomical parts in relation to each other
  165. Midsagittal
    median (halves)
  166. coronal
    frontal (front and back)
  167. transverse
    horizontal (upper and lower)
  168. 2 major organs in the dorsal cavities
    • cranial
    • spinal
  169. 2 major organs in the ventral cavities
    • thoracic (heart, lungs, and associated structures)
    • abdominopelvic (digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures)
  170. Abduction
    moving away from the midsoggital plane of body (ie: fingers apart, arm up)
  171. Adduction
    movement toward midsoggital plane of body (ie: fingers together, arm down)
  172. Medial
    pertaining to the midline of the body
  173. lateral
    pertaining to a side
  174. superior
    toward head or upper portion of structure
  175. inferior
    away from head, toward tail or lower part of structure
  176. proximal
    nearer to the center
  177. distal
    further from center
  178. anterior (ventral)
    front of body
  179. posterior (dorsal)
    Back of body
  180. parietal
    pertaining to outer wall of body cavity
  181. visceral
    pertaining to viscera, internal organs, abdominal organs
  182. prone
    lying on abdomen, face down
  183. supine
    lying horizontally, face up
  184. inversion
    turning inward, inside out
  185. eversion
    turning outward
  186. palmar
    palm of hand
  187. plantar
    sole of foot
  188. superficial
    toward surface of body
  189. deep
    away from surface of body
  190. ankl/o
    stiffness, bent, crooked
  191. arthr/o
    joint
  192. kyph/o
    humpback
  193. lamin/o
    lamina (part of vertebrae arch)
  194. lord/o
    curve, swayback
  195. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  196. orth/o
    straight
  197. oste/o
    bone
  198. ped/o
    foot; child
  199. ped/I
    food; child
  200. scoli/o
    crooked, bent
  201. thorac/o
    chest
  202. acromi/o
    acromion
  203. brachi/o
    arm
  204. calcane/o
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  205. cephal/o
    head
  206. cervic/o
    neck
  207. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  208. cost/o
    ribs
  209. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  210. dactyl/o
    fingers; toes
  211. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  212. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
  213. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  214. ili/o
    ilium (lateral part of the hip bone)
  215. ischi/o
    ischium (lower part of hip bone)
  216. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  217. metacarp/o
    metacarpus (hand bones)
  218. metatars/o
    metatarsus (foot bones)
  219. patell/o
    patella (knee cap)
  220. pelv/I
    pelvis
  221. phalang/o
    phalanges (finger and toe bones)
  222. pod/o
    foot
  223. pub/o
    pelvis bone (anterior)
  224. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray, radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  225. spondyl/o
    vertebrae (back bone)
  226. vertebr/o
    vertebrae (back bone)
  227. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  228. tibi/o
    tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
  229. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle (visceral)
  230. muscul/o
    muscle
  231. my/o
    muscle
  232. rhabd/o
    rod shaped (striated)
  233. rhabdomy/o
    rod shaped muscle
  234. chondr/o
    cartilage
  235. fasci/o
    band, fascia (fibrous membrane)
  236. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous tissue
  237. synov/o
    synovial, membrane, synovial fluid
  238. ten/o
    tendon
  239. tend/o
    tendon
  240. tendin/o
    tendon
  241. -asthesnia
    weakness, debility
  242. -blast
    embroyonic cell
  243. -clasia
    to break; Surgical fracture
  244. -clast
    to break; surgical fracture
  245. -desis
    binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
  246. -malacia
    softening
  247. -physis
    growth
  248. -porosis
    porous
  249. -sarcoma
    malignant tumor of connective tissue
  250. -scopy
    visual examination
  251. a-
    without, not (before consonant)
  252. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  253. sub-
    under, below
  254. supra-
    above, excessive, superior
  255. syn-
    union, together, joined
  256. adip/o
    fat
  257. lip/o
    fat
  258. steat/o
    fat
  259. cutane/o
    skin
  260. dermat/o
    skin
  261. derm/o
    skin
  262. hidr/o
    sweat
  263. sudor/o
    sweat
  264. ichthy/o
    dry, scaly
  265. kerat/o
    horny tissue, hard; cornea
  266. melan/o
    black
  267. myc/o
    fungus
  268. onych/o
    nail
  269. ungu/o
    nail
  270. pil/o
    hair
  271. trich/o
    hair
  272. scler/o
    hardenig; scera (white of eye)
  273. seb/o
    sebum, sebaceous
  274. xen/o
    foreign, strange
  275. xer/o
    dry
  276. -cyte
    cell
  277. -derma
    skin
  278. -logist
    specialist
  279. -logy
    study of
  280. -therapy
    treatment
  281. an-
    without, not
  282. dia-
    through, across
  283. epi-
    above, upon
  284. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  285. sub-
    under, below
  286. macule
    • flat lesion
    • pigmented
    • circumferenced area less then 1cm
    • examples- freckle, flat mole
  287. papule
    • elevated
    • less then 1 cm
    • may be same color as skin, or pigmented
    • exampes- wart, pimple, psoriasis
  288. vesicle
    • elevated
    • fluid filled
    • less then 0.5cm
    • examples- shingles, chicken pox
  289. nodule
    • palpable
    • circumscribed lesion
    • larger and deeper then papule (0.6cm-2cm)
    • extends into derma area
    • examples - benign or malgnant tumor
  290. pustule
    • small, raised, cirumscribed
    • fluid filled
    • contains pus
    • less then 1cm
    • examples - acne, scabies
  291. tumor
    • solid, elevated
    • larger then 2cm
    • extends into dermal and subcutaneos layers
    • example- lipoma
  292. bulla
    • fluid filled
    • a vesicle or blister larger then 1cm
    • examples- second degree burns
  293. wheal
    • elevated
    • firm, rounded, varies in size, shape and color
    • solid
    • accompanied by itching
    • examples- hives, bites
  294. exoriations
    • linear scratch marks, or traumatized scratch marks
    • examples- scratchs, chemical or thermal burns
  295. fissure
    • small slit or crack like sore that extends into dermal layer.
    • caused by continuous inflammation or drying
  296. ulcer
    • open sore or lesion that extends to dermis, heals with scarring
    • example - pressure sore, basal cell carcinoma
  297. 3 secondary lesions
    • excoriations
    • fissure
    • ulcer
  298. 8 primary lesions
    • macule
    • papule
    • nodule
    • tumor
    • wheal
    • vesicle
    • pustule
    • bulla
  299. 3 fluid filled lesions
    • vesicle
    • pustule
    • bulla
  300. 4 solid lesions
    • papule
    • nodule
    • tumor
    • wheal
  301. hives
    wheal
  302. lipoma
    tumor
  303. benign or malignant tumor
    nodule
  304. wart, pimple
    papule
  305. chicken pox
    vesicle
  306. acne
    pustule
  307. second degree burns
    bulla
  308. freckle
    macule
  309. 7 elevated lesions
    • papule
    • nodule
    • tumor
    • wheal
    • vesicle
    • pustule
    • bulla
  310. 3 depressed lesions (loss of skin)
    • excoriations
    • fissure
    • ulcer
  311. scatches
    excorations
  312. bed/pressure sore
    ulcer
  313. hard palate
    anterior portion
  314. soft palate
    posterior portion
  315. or/o
    mouth
  316. stomat/o
    mouth
  317. gloss/o
    tongue
  318. lingu/o
    tongue
  319. bucc/o
    cheek
  320. cheil/o
    lip
  321. labi/o
    lip
  322. dent/o
    teeth
  323. odont/o
    teeth
  324. gingiv/o
    gums
  325. sial/o
    saliva, salivary gland
  326. esophagi/o
    esophagus
  327. pharyng/o
    pharynx
  328. gastr/o
    stomach
  329. pylor/o
    pylorus
  330. duoden/o
    duodenum (first part of small intestine)
  331. enter/o
    small intestine
  332. jejun/o
    jejunum (second part of small intestine)
  333. ile/o
    ileum (last part of small intestine)
  334. append/o
    appendix
  335. appendic/o
    appendix
  336. col/o
    colon
  337. colon/o
    colon
  338. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  339. rect/o
    rectum
  340. proct/o
    anus, rectum
  341. ascites
    abnormal accymulation of fluid in abdominal cavities
  342. cachexia
    state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting
  343. cirrhosis
    yellowing of skin due to liver disease
  344. crohn disease
    form of inflammatory bowel disease, usually of ileum
  345. fecalith
    fecal concretion
  346. flatus
    gas in gastrointestinal tract
  347. halitosis
    foul- smelling breath
  348. leukoplakia
    white patches on mucous membrane of cheek
  349. obstipation
    intractable constipation
  350. steatorrhea
    passage of fat in large amounts in feces
  351. nas/o
    nose
  352. rhin/o
    nose
  353. sept/o
    septum
  354. adenoid/o
    adenoids
  355. tonsil/o
    tonsils
  356. pharyng/o
    pharynx
  357. epiglott/o
    epiglottis
  358. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  359. trache/o
    trachea (windpipe)
  360. bronchi/o
    bronchus
  361. bronch/o
    bronchus
  362. bronchiol/o
    bronchioles
  363. alveol/o
    alveolus
  364. pleur/o
    pleura
  365. pneum/o
    air, lung
  366. pneumon/o
    air, lung
  367. pulmon/o
    lung
  368. anthrac/o
    coal, coal dust
  369. atel/o
    incomplete, imperfect
  370. coni/o
    dust
  371. cyan/o
    blue
  372. lob/o
    lobe
  373. orth/o
    straight
  374. ox/I
    oxygen
  375. ox/o
    oxygen
  376. pector/o
    chest
  377. steth/o
    chest
  378. thorac/o
    chest
  379. phren/o
    diaphragm, mind
  380. spir/o
    breathe
  381. -capnia
    carbon dioxide
  382. -osmia
    smell
  383. -phonia
    voice
  384. -pnea
    breathing
  385. -ptsysis
    spitting
  386. -thorax
    chest
  387. brady-
    slow
  388. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  389. eu-
    good, normal
  390. tachy-
    rapid
  391. anosmia
    absence or decrease in smell
  392. apnea
    temporary loss of breathing
  393. atelectasis
    collapsed or airless lung
  394. consolidation
    loss of sponginess of lungs due to enlargement
  395. coryza
    head cold- inflammation of nose
  396. deviated septum
    displacement of middle nose cartilage
  397. emphysema
    decrease in alveolar elasticity
  398. epistaxis
    nosebleed,
  399. exudate
    inflammatory fluid high in protein with blood and cells
  400. hypoxemia
    deficiency of oxygen in blood
  401. hypoxia
    deficiency of oxygen in tissues
  402. pertussis
    whooping cough
  403. pleurisy
    inflammation of pleural membrane
  404. pneumoconiosis
    dust particles found in lungs
  405. pulmonary edema
    excessive fluid in lungs- causes cough and dyspnea
  406. surfactant
    phospholipid allows lung to expand with ease
  407. transudate
    noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with less protein
  408. tubercles
    granulomas associated with tuberculosis
  409. edema
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces
  410. suppuration
    producing of pus
  411. hematopoiesis occurs at what site
    bone marrow
  412. complicated fracture
    when a bone has injured another organ
  413. comminuted fracture
    broken bone that causes an external wound
  414. tissue type that forms blood fat and fibroblasts
    connective
  415. rheumatoid arthritis
    autoimmune disease
  416. impetigo
    inflammatory skin disease characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
  417. protects against infection
    sebum
  418. debridement
    removes necrotized tissue from wound
  419. decubitus ulcer
    bedsores
  420. pediculosis is caused by
    lice
  421. comedo
    blackhead
  422. basal layer includes cells called
    melanocytes
  423. lentigo
    a small brown macule on skin caused by sun exposure
  424. pruritus
    itching of hands
  425. lunula
    growth area of the nail
  426. eschar
    damaged tissue following a severe burn
  427. antiseptics
    applied agents that inhibit growth of bacteria
  428. liver produces
    bile
  429. volvulus
    life threating obstruction when bowel twists itself
  430. deglutition
    swallowing
  431. villi
    fingerlike projections in small intestine, that absorb nutrients into bloodstream
  432. peristalsis
    progressive wavelike movement occurs involuntary in hollow tubes
  433. rugae
    mucosal folds in stomach wall
  434. peptic ulcer
    produces hole in stomach wall
  435. colostomies
    divert fecal flow to a bag outside of body
  436. anastomosis
    removes polyps from vessel

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