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Western view on landscape
Clear, main objects, one point perspective, a single vanishing point
Eastern view on landscape
No clear main objects, everything looks flat, bird's eye perspective
Western view on portraits
Highlight on the person, background is blurred and darkened (15% face to frame ratio)
Eastern view on portraits
Close attention to details, flat perspective (4% face to frame ratio)
Things exist by themselves and can be defined by their attributes. (Context-independent, object-oriented)
Things are inter-related. Various factors are involved in an event. (Context-dependent, context-sensitive)
Attention to objects, context independent, detachment of objects, use of formal logic, predicting/explaining behavior using rules
Attention to the field, context-inclusive, relationship oriented, reliance on experiential knowledge, predicting/explaining behavior using object-field relationships
Main objects are more important.
Explicit message, direct.
Communication is a way of exchanging information, ideas and opinions
Context is more important.
Information is contextualized.
Indirect message, talk around the point to embellish it.
Communication is a way of engaging someone and building relationships.
How do westerners argue?
Focus on main argument, deductive, point-first.
How to east asians argue?
Focus on context, dialectical principles, point-last
Fundamental attributional bias
Tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations while under-valuing situational explanations.
The mental interpretation of external stimuli via sensation.
physiological, sociological (demographic, group membership, culture), psychological
Stages of human information processing
- 1: Input/sensation
- 2: Storage/memory
- 3: Recall/Retrieval
Describe the typical memory of Americans.
early dated, elaborated, self-focused, concerning a personal experience that took place at a particular time and place, individuals stand out
Describe the typical memory of chinese.
Later-dated, brief, centering on a social-interaction, concerning collective activity that took place regularly on multiple occasions, relationship-oriented, highlight significant others, personal relationships and social context
Who groups by shared features? What kind of relationship is this?
Americans. Taxonomic relationships.
Who groups by relationships? What kind of relationship is this?
East Asians. Thematic categorization.
Sorting or classifying things into an identifiable group or compartment.
A way to save our cognitive resource. Membership in social categories that are believed to be associated with certain traits and behaviors.
How do you draw the sterotype content model?
- W PITY PRIDE
- T CONTEMPT ENVY
Anxiety in a situation where people have the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group.
Eg. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds experience stereotype threat on intellectual tasks compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds.
Ethnocentric attributional bias
For in group members: Attribute positive acts to internal factors and negative acts to external factors.
For out group members: Attribute positive acts to external factors and negative acts to internal factors.
Involuntary membership group
Groups to which people have no choice but to belong. Race, sex, ethnicity, etc.
Involuntary nonmembership group
People may want to belong to a group but are ineligible to join because they do not possess the needed qualifications.
Voluntary membership group
Groups to which people consciously choose to belong
Voluntary nonmembership group
People might be eligible for membership in a group but choose not to join
A group whose norms, aspirations and values shape the behavior of its members.
A group whose attributes are dissimilar from those of the in-group, or that oppose the accomplishment of the in-groups goals.
A group to which we may or may not belong but with which we identify in some important way.
What two reasons to we use reference groups? Functions?
- comparative: For making judgments and evaluations
- normative: Establish norms and standards to which group members conform.