Anatomy -- muscles and OIAs

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hrdnrdc10
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Anatomy -- muscles and OIAs
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2013-12-04 19:06:06
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Anatomy muscles OIAs
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Anatomy -- muscles and OIAs
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  1. brachiocephalicus m.
    attachments
    • cranially: mastoid process and cranial half of dorsal midline of neck
    • caudally: cranial border of distal humerus
  2. brachiocephalicus m.
    action
    • fixed: pull head and neck laterally or ventrally (both)
    • not fixed: pull limb cranially
  3. trapezius m. 
    origin
    dorsal midline of neck and thorax (from cervical vertebra 3 through thoracic vertebra 9)
  4. trapezius m.
    insertion
    spine of scapula
  5. trapezius m.
    action
    elevate the limb
  6. latissimus dorsi m.
    origin
    spinous processes of the thoracic and first few lumbar vertebrae via the thoracolumbar fascia
  7. latissimus dorsi m.
    insertion
    teres major tuberosity
  8. latissimus dorsi m.
    action
    • fixed: extend shoulder joint; pull body cranially
    • not fixed: flex shoulder joint; pull limb caudally
  9. rhomboideus m.
    origin
    caudal surface of skull , dorsal midline of neck and thorax to mid-thoracic region
  10. rhomboideus m.
    insertion
    dorsal border of the scapula
  11. rhomboideus m.
    action
    elevate the limb; pull dorsal scapula closer to the body
  12. omotransversarius m. 
    attachments
    • cranially: wing of the atlas
    • caudally: distal end of spine of scapula
  13. omotransversarius m.
    action
    • fixed: pull head and neck laterally
    • not fixed: pull limb cranially
  14. superficial pectoral m.
    origin
    cranial sternum
  15. superficial pectoral m.
    insertion
    crest of greater tubercle of humerus
  16. superficial pectoral m.
    action
    adduct the limb at the shoulder joint
  17. deep pectoral m.
    origin
    full length of sternum
  18. deep pectoral m.
    insertion
    lesser and greater tubercles of humerus
  19. deep pectoral m.
    action
    • fixed: extend shoulder joint; pulls body cranially when limb is pulled cranially
    • not fixed: adduct the limb and pull limb caudally
  20. serratus ventralis m. 
    origin
    the last five cervical vertebrae and first seven or eight ribs
  21. serratus ventralis m. 
    insertion
    serrated face of scapula
  22. serratus ventralis m. 
    action
    support and elevate the trunk
  23. supraspinatus m.
    origin
    supraspinous fossa of the scapula
  24. supraspinatus m.
    insertion
    greater tubercle of humerus
  25. supraspinatus m.
    action
    act as a lateral collateral ligament; extend shoulder joint
  26. deltoideus m.
    origin
    spine and acromion of scapula
  27. deltoideus m.
    insertion
    deltoid tuberosity
  28. deltoideus m.
    action
    flex the shoulder joint
  29. infraspinatus m.
    origin
    infraspinous fossa of the scapula
  30. infraspinatus m.
    insertion
    lateral surface of the greater tubercle of the humerus
  31. infraspinatus m.
    action
    act as lateral collateral ligament; flex shoulder joint; abduct limb at shoulder joint
  32. subscapularis m.
    origin
    subscapular fossa of scapula
  33. subscapularis m.
    insertion
    lesser tubercle of humerus
  34. subscapularis m.
    action
    act as medial collateral ligament; adduct limb at shoulder joint
  35. teres major m.
    origin
    proximal portion of caudal border of scapula
  36. teres major m.
    insertion
    teres major tuberosity of humerus
  37. teres major m.
    action
    flex shoulder joint
  38. tensor fascia antebrachii m.
    origin
    fascia on lateral surface of latissimus dorsi
  39. tensor fascia antebrachii m.
    insertion
    olecranon
  40. tensor fascia antebrachii m.
    action
    extend elbow joint
  41. triceps brachii m. -- lateral head
    origin
    tricipital line of humerus
  42. triceps brachii m. -- lateral head
    insertion
    tuber olecrani
  43. triceps brachii m. -- lateral head
    action
    extend elbow joint
  44. triceps brachii m. -- accessory head
    origin
    neck of the humerus
  45. triceps brachii m. -- accessory head
    insertion
    tuber olecrani
  46. triceps brachii m. -- accessory head
    action
    extend elbow joint
  47. triceps brachii m. -- long head
    origin
    distal portion of caudal border of scapula
  48. triceps brachii m. -- long head
    insertion
    tuber olecrani
  49. triceps brachii m. -- long head
    action
    extend elbow joint; flex shoulder joint
  50. triceps brachii m. -- medial head
    origin
    crest of lesser tubercle
  51. triceps brachii m. -- medial head
    insertion
    tuber olecrani
  52. triceps brachii m. -- medial head
    action
    extend elbow joint
  53. biceps brachii m.
    origin
    supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
  54. biceps brachii m.
    insertion
    medial aspect of proximal radius and ulna
  55. biceps brachii m.
    action
    flex elbow joint; extend shoulder joint
  56. brachialis m.
    origin
    brachial groove of humerus
  57. brachialis m. 
    insertion
    medial aspect of proximal radius and ulna
  58. brachialis m. 
    action
    flex elbow joint
  59. extensor carpi radialis m.
    origin
    lateral epicondyle of humerus
  60. extensor carpi radialis m.
    insertion
    dorsal aspect of proximal extremity of metacarpals 2 & 3
  61. extensor carpi radialis m.
    action
    extend carpal joints (aids minimally in flexing elbow joint)
  62. common digital extensor m.
    origin
    lateral epicondyle of humerus
  63. common digital extensor m.
    insertion
    extensor processes of distal phalanges of weight-bearing digits
  64. common digital extensor m.
    action
    extend carpal joints; extend metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of weight-bearing digits
  65. lateral digital extensor m.
    origin
    lateral epicondyle of humerus
  66. lateral digital extensor m.
    insertion
    common digital extensor tendons inserting on extensor processes of distal phalanges of digits 3,4, and 5; minor attachment to proximal and/or middle phalanges of same digits
  67. lateral digital extensor m.
    action
    extend carpal joints and digital joints of digits 3,4, and 5
  68. ulneris lateralis m.
    origin
    lateral epicondyle of humerus
  69. ulneris lateralis m.
    insertion
    proximal end of metacarpal 5 and accessory carpal bone
  70. ulneris lateralis m.
    action
    flex carpal joints; abduct manus at carpal joints
  71. supinator m.
    origin
    lateral epicondyle of humerus
  72. supinator m.
    insertion
    cranial border of radius
  73. supinator m.
    action
    supinate antebrachium and manus (aids in flexing elbow joint)
  74. abductor pollicus longus m.
    origin
    middle third of lateral border of ulna and adjacent interosseous membrane
  75. abductor pollicus longus m.
    insertion
    proximal end of first metacarpal bone
  76. abductor pollicus longus m.
    action
    extend carpal joints; abduct first digit
  77. pronator teres m.
    origin
    medial epicondyle of humerus
  78. pronator teres m.
    insertion
    proximal third of medial border of radius
  79. pronator teres m.
    action
    pronate antebrachium and manus (aids in flexing elbow joint)
  80. flexor carpi radialis m.
    origin
    medial epicondyle of humerus
  81. flexor carpi radialis m.
    insertion
    palmar aspect of proximal ends of metacarpals 2 & 3
  82. flexor carpi radialis m.
    action
    flex carpal joints
  83. flexor carpi ulneris m. 
    origin
    medial epicondyle of humerus; caudomedial surface of olecranon of ulna
  84. flexor carpi ulneris m. 
    insertion
    accessory carpal bone
  85. flexor carpi ulneris m. 
    action
    flex carpal joints
  86. superficial digital flexor m.
    origin
    medial epicondyle of humerus
  87. superficial digital flexor m.
    insertion
    palmar surface of proximal end of middle phalanges of weight-bearing digits
  88. superficial digital flexor m.
    action
    flex carpal joints; flex metacarpophalangeal joints and proximal interphalangeal joints of weight-bearing digits
  89. deep digital flexor m.
    origin
    medial epicondyle of humerus; caudal border of ulna; medial border of radius
  90. deep digital flexor m.
    insertion
    palmar surface of distal phalanx of all five digits
  91. deep digital flexor m.
    action
    flex carpal joints; flex digital joints of all five digits
  92. superficial gluteal m.
    origin
    sacrum, first caudal vertebra, sacrotuberous ligament
  93. superficial gluteal m.
    insertion
    third trochanter of femur
  94. superficial gluteal m.
    action
    extend hip joint; abduct limb at hip joint
  95. middle gluteal m.
    origin
    crest and gluteal surface of ilium
  96. middle gluteal m.
    insertion
    greater trochanter of femur
  97. middle gluteal m.
    action
    extend hip joint; rotate limb medially
  98. deep gluteal m.
    origin
    body of ilium; ischiatic spine
  99. deep gluteal m.
    insertion
    greater trochanter of femur
  100. deep gluteal m.
    action
    extend hip joint; rotate limb medially; abduct limb at hip joint
  101. biceps femoris m.
    origin
    sacrotuberous ligament; ischiatic tuberosity
  102. biceps femoris m.
    insertion
    patella; patellar ligament; cranial border of lateral aspect of tibia via fascia lata and crural fascia; tuber calcanei via crural fascia
  103. biceps femoris m.
    action
    • extend hip joint
    • extend tarsal joints (via portion inserting on tuber calcanei)
    • fixed: extend stifle joint 
    • not fixed: flex stifle joint (via portion inserting on cranial border of tibia and calcaneous)
  104. semitendinosus m.
    origin
    ischiatic tuberosity
  105. semitendinosus m.
    insertion
    medial aspect of proximal tibia; tuber calcanei via crural fascia
  106. semitendinosus m.
    action
    • extend hip joint
    • extend tarsal joints
    • fixed: extend stifle joint
    • not fixed: flex stifle joint
  107. semimembranosus m.
    origin
    ischiatic tuberosity
  108. semimembranosus m.
    insertion
    caudal surface of distal femur; proximal end of tibia
  109. semimembranosus m.
    action
    extend hip joint; flex/extend stifle joint
  110. sartorious m. 
    origin
    ventral border of cranial ilium and adjacent fascia
  111. sartorious m. 
    insertion
    patella and cranial border of tibia
  112. sartorious m. 
    action
    flex hip joint; flex/extend stifle joint
  113. pectineus m.
    origin
    iliopubic eminence; pectin of pubis
  114. pectineus m.
    insertion
    caudomedial aspect of distal femur
  115. pectineus m.
    action
    adduct the limb
  116. gracilis m.
    origin
    pelvic symphysis
  117. gracilis m.
    insertion
    cranial border of tibia and tuber calcanei
  118. gracilis m.
    action
    adduct limb; extend hip joint; flex stifle joint; extend tarsal joints
  119. adductor m.
    origin
    pelvic symphysis and adjacent ischial arch; ventral pubis and ischium
  120. adductor m.
    insertion
    lateral lip of caudal surface of femur
  121. adductor m.
    action
    adduct limb; extend hip joint
  122. tensor fascia latae m.
    origin
    tuber coxae and adjacent part of ilium
  123. tensor fascia latae m.
    insertion
    lateral femoral fascia
  124. tensor fascia latae m.
    action
    tense the lateral femoral fascia; flex hip joint; extend stifle joint
  125. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus lateralis m.
    origin
    proximal femur
  126. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus lateralis m.
    insertion
    tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  127. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus lateralis m.
    action
    extend stifle joint
  128. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus intermedius m.
    origin
    proximal femur
  129. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus intermedius m.
    insertion
    tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  130. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus intermedius m.
    action
    extend stifle joint
  131. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus medialis m.
    origin
    proximal femur
  132. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus medialis m.
    insertion
    tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  133. quadriceps femoris m. -- vastus medialis m.
    action
    extend stifle joint
  134. quadriceps femoris m. -- rectus femoris m.
    origin
    tuberosity for rectus femoris m.
  135. quadriceps femoris m. -- rectus femoris m.
    insertion
    tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
  136. quadriceps femoris m. -- rectus femoris m.
    action
    extend stifle joint; flex hip joint
  137. cranial tibial m.
    origin
    extensor groove and cranial border of the tibia
  138. cranial tibial m.
    insertion
    proximal plantar surface of the first and second metatarsal bones
  139. cranial tibial m.
    action
    flex tarsal joints
  140. long digital extensor m.
    origin
    extensor fossa of femur
  141. long digital extensor m.
    insertion
    dorsal aspect of distal phalanges of weight-bearing digits
  142. long digital extensor m.
    action
    flex tarsal joints extend metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of weight-bearing digits
  143. peroneus longus m.
    origin
    lateral condyle of tibia, fibular head, lateral collateral ligament of stifle joint
  144. peroneus longus m.
    insertion
    fourth tarsal bone, plantar aspect of proximal ends of metatarsal bones
  145. peroneus longus m.
    action
    flex tarsal joints
  146. gastrocnemius m.
    origin
    medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities of the femur
  147. gastrocnemius m.
    insertion
    tuber calcanei
  148. gastrocnemius m.
    action
    extend tarsal joints and flex stifle joint
  149. superficial digital flexor m.
    origin
    later supracondylar tuberosity of femur
  150. superficial digital flexor m.
    insertion
    tuber calcanei; plantar aspect of proximal end of middle phalanges of weight-bearing digits
  151. superficial digital flexor m.
    action
    extend tarsal joints; flex metatarsophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of weight-bearing digits
  152. deep digital flexor m.
    two heads
    • medial digital flexor m.
    • lateral digital flexor m.
  153. deep digital flexor m.
    origin
    proximal tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane
  154. deep digital flexor m.
    insertion
    plantar surface of base of distal phalanges of all five digits
  155. deep digital flexor m.
    action
    extend tarsal joints; flex digital joints of all five digits
  156. popliteus m.
    origin
    fossa for popliteus m.
  157. popliteus m.
    insertion
    caudal and medial surface of proximal tibia
  158. popliteus m.
    action
    rotate leg medially; flex stifle joint
  159. sternocephalicus mm.
    origin
    the first sternebra (manubrium)
  160. sternocephalicus mm.
    insertion
    mastoid process of temporal bone; nuchal crest of occipital bone
  161. sternocephalicus mm.
    action
    draw head and neck laterally; pull head ventrally if both contract
  162. sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm.
    origin
    first sternebra and first costal cartilage
  163. sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm.
    insertion
    • sternohyoideus: basihyoid bone
    • sternothyroideus: thyroid cartilage of larynx
  164. sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm.
    action
    pull tongue and larynx caudally, as in swallowing
  165. scalenus m.
    origin
    last three cervical vertebrae
  166. scalenus m.
    insertion
    first few ribs
  167. scalenus m.
    action
    functions in respiration by pulling cranial ribs cranially and "anchoring" them during inspiration
  168. serratus dorsalis cranialis m.
    origin
    thoracic fascia
  169. serratus dorsalis cranialis m.
    insertion
    first seven or eight ribs
  170. serratus dorsalis cranialis m.
    action
    functions in respiration by pulling cranial ribs cranially and "anchoring" them during inspiration
  171. external and internal intercostal mm.
    origin
    caudal border of rib

    • external: fibers run caudoventrally
    • internal: fibers run cranioventrally
  172. external and internal intercostal mm.
    insertion
    cranial border of next rib

    • external: fibers run caudoventrally
    • internal: fibers run cranioventrally
  173. external and internal intercostal mm.
    action
    pull ribs closer together
  174. external abdominal oblique m.
    origin
    caudal ribs and thoracolumbar fascia

    fibers run caudoventrally
  175. external abdominal oblique m.
    insertion
    ventral midline

    fibers run caudoventrally
  176. internal abdominal oblique m.
    origin
    thoracolumbar fascia, tuber coxae, and inguinal ligament

    fibers run cranioventrally
  177. internal abdominal oblique m.
    insertion
    aponeurosis just lateral to rectus abdominus muscles

    fibers run cranioventrally
  178. transversus abdominus m.
    origin
    thoracolumbar fascia

    fibers run ventrally
  179. transversus abdominus m.
    insertion
    aponeurosis goes dorsal to rectus abdominus m. except in the very caudal portion, where it also goes ventral to the muscle

    fibers run ventrally
  180. rectus abdominus m.
    origin
    sternum and first few ribs via an aponeurosis
  181. rectus abdominus m.
    insertion
    caudally to pubis
  182. rectus abdominus m.
    action
    hold sutures well; common site for abdominal incisions
  183. splenius m.
    origin
    spinous processes of cranial thoracic vertebrae and dorsal midline of neck
  184. splenius m.
    insertion
    caudodorsal border of skull
  185. iliocostalis muscle system
    origin
    ilium
  186. iliocostalis muscle system
    insertion
    first rib and last cervical vertebra
  187. longissimus muscle system
    attachments
    • cranially: skull
    • caudally: ilium
  188. transversospinalis muscle system
    attachments
    • cranially: head
    • caudally: sacrum
  189. iliocostalis, longissimus, and transversospinalis muscle systems
    action
    • if one side contracts: lateral flexion
    • if both sides contract: extend intervertebral joints
  190. semispinalis capitis m.
    part of transversospinalis system and lies deep to splenius m.

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