Chapter 9: Muscles

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Shira
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242682
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Chapter 9: Muscles
Updated:
2013-10-24 18:16:56
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Anatomy Physiology
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Relating to the muscles of the body
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  1. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle
  2. What is the most abundant muscle tissue?
    Skeletal muscle
  3. Which of the three muscle tissues is striated, voluntary, and moves bones on skeleton?
    Skeletal muscle
  4. Which of the three muscle tissues is striated, involuntary, and forms wall of heart?
    Cardiac muscle
  5. Which of the three muscle tissues is non-striated, involuntary, and forms wall of hollow internal organs?
    Smooth muscle
  6. What muscle tissues are a part of the Somatic Nervous System? Autonomic Nervous System?
    • Somatic Nervous SystemSkeletal
    • Autonomic Nervous SystemSmooth and Cardiac
  7. What are the four special characteristics of muscle tissue?
    • Electrical Excitability 
    • Contractility
    • Extensibility
    • Elasticity
  8. Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to respond to stimuli by producing an electrical signal (action potential)?
    Electrical Excitability
  9. Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated?
    Contractility
  10. Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to stretch without being damaged?
    Extensibility
  11. Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to return to its original shape after contraction or stretching?
    Elasticity
  12. What are the seven major functions of muscle tissue?
    • Movement
    • Produces heat
    • Cardiacheart beat and smoothperistalsis
    • Stabilizing joints
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Stores calcium (Ca2+)
  13. Three of the four connective tissues sheaths of the skeletal muscle are epimysium, perimysium, and  endomysium. What type of connective tissues compose each of those?
    • Epimysium and PerimysiumDense, irregular CT
    • EndomysiumLoose, areolar CT
  14. The fourth connective tissue sheath are fascicles describe what those are.
    Bundles of muscle fibers
  15. What is the same thing as a muscle fiber?
    Muscle cell
  16. What is sarcolemma?
    Plasma membrane of muscle cell
  17. What is sarcoplasm?
    Cytoplasm of muscle cell
  18. What are the two components found in the sarcoplasm?
    • Glycosomes
    • Myoglobin
  19. Which of the two components found in the sarcoplasm stores glycogen?
    Glycosomes
  20. Which of the two components found in the sarcoplasm is a red pigment that stores oxygen?
    Myoglobin
  21. What are the three specialized intracellular structures of muscle cells?
    • Myofibrils
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • T tubules
  22. Which of the three specialized intracellular structures is continuous with the sarcolemma and allows muscle cells to communicate with one another through nerve impulses?
    T tubules
  23. Which of the three specialized intracellular structures is a smooth endoplasmic reticulum that stores and releases calcium (Ca2+)?
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  24. What is the purpose of Ca2+ in the muscles?
    Signal for muscle contraction
  25. Which of the three specialized intracellular structures are many sarcomeres lined up end to end?
    Myofibrils
  26. What causes the striations of the muscle cell (name them as bands)?
    • Dark A Bands
    • Light I Bands
  27. Which band contains thick (myosin) filament?
    Dark A Bands
  28. Which band contains thin (actin) filament?
    Light I Bands
  29. What is a sarcomere?
    Smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle
  30. Which filament consists of many myosin molecules whose heads protrude at opposite ends of the filaments?
    Thick (myosin) filament
  31. Which filament consists of two strands of actin subunits twisted into a helix plus two types of regulatory proteins?
    Thin (actin) filament
  32. What are the regulatory proteins of the thin filaments?
    • Tropomyosin
    • Troponin
  33. What function do the regulatory proteins serve in the muscles?
    Regulation in muscle contractions
  34. What happens during muscle contraction?
    Formation of actin-myosin crossbridges (actin filaments slide past myosin—overlapping of the two)
  35. What causes muscle shortening?
    Shortening in the size of sarcomere
  36. What is the correct order of the muscle hierarchy?
    MuscleBundles of muscle fibers (fascicles)—Muscle fiberMyofibrilSarcomereThick filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin)

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