Chapter 9: Muscles
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What are the three types of muscle tissue?
- Skeletal muscle
- Cardiac muscle
- Smooth muscle
What is the most abundant muscle tissue?
Which of the three muscle tissues is striated, voluntary, and moves bones on skeleton?
Which of the three muscle tissues is striated, involuntary, and forms wall of heart?
Which of the three muscle tissues is non-striated, involuntary, and forms wall of hollow internal organs?
What muscle tissues are a part of the Somatic Nervous System? Autonomic Nervous System?
- Somatic Nervous System—Skeletal
- Autonomic Nervous System—Smooth and Cardiac
What are the four special characteristics of muscle tissue?
- Electrical Excitability
Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to respond to stimuli by producing an electrical signal (action potential)?
Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated?
Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to stretch without being damaged?
Which of the four special characteristics of muscle tissue is the ability to return to its original shape after contraction or stretching?
What are the seven major functions of muscle tissue?
- Produces heat
- Cardiac—heart beat and smooth—peristalsis
- Stabilizing joints
- Stores calcium (Ca2+)
Three of the four connective tissues sheaths of the skeletal muscle are epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium. What type of connective tissues compose each of those?
- Epimysium and Perimysium—Dense, irregular CT
- Endomysium—Loose, areolar CT
The fourth connective tissue sheath are fascicles describe what those are.
Bundles of muscle fibers
What is the same thing as a muscle fiber?
What is sarcolemma?
Plasma membrane of muscle cell
What is sarcoplasm?
Cytoplasm of muscle cell
What are the two components found in the sarcoplasm?
Which of the two components found in the sarcoplasm stores glycogen?
Which of the two components found in the sarcoplasm is a red pigment that stores oxygen?
What are the three specialized intracellular structures of muscle cells?
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum
- T tubules
Which of the three specialized intracellular structures is continuous with the sarcolemma and allows muscle cells to communicate with one another through nerve impulses?
Which of the three specialized intracellular structures is a smooth endoplasmic reticulum that stores and releases calcium (Ca2+)?
What is the purpose of Ca2+ in the muscles?
Signal for muscle contraction
Which of the three specialized intracellular structures are many sarcomeres lined up end to end?
What causes the striations of the muscle cell (name them as bands)?
- Dark A Bands
- Light I Bands
Which band contains thick (myosin) filament?
Dark A Bands
Which band contains thin (actin) filament?
Light I Bands
What is a sarcomere?
Smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle
Which filament consists of many myosin molecules whose heads protrude at opposite ends of the filaments?
Thick (myosin) filament
Which filament consists of two strands of actin subunits twisted into a helix plus two types of regulatory proteins?
Thin (actin) filament
What are the regulatory proteins of the thin filaments?
What function do the regulatory proteins serve in the muscles?
Regulation in muscle contractions
What happens during muscle contraction?
Formation of actin-myosin crossbridges (actin filaments slide past myosin—overlapping of the two)
What causes muscle shortening?
Shortening in the size of sarcomere
What is the correct order of the muscle hierarchy?
Muscle—Bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles)—Muscle fiber—Myofibril—Sarcomere—Thick filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin)
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