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What is gastroenteritis?
Inflammation of mucosa/submucosa of stomach/intestines
What is diarrhea?
Frequent &/or watery stools, loss of electrolytes/fluids
What is dysentery?
Inflammation of mucosa of lg intestin, blood/pus in stools
What does "Cholera-like" mean?
"rice water" diarrhea due to cholera toxin (CT)
What is hemorrhagic colitis?
Bloody diarrhea, cramps, low/no fever
Define bacterial toxins.
When pathogens classified as causing foodborne infections produce toxins as virulence factors (NOT INTOXICATIONS)
What are the 3 important surface antigens?
- O - somatic (LPS)
- H - flagellar (protein)
- K - capsular (polysaccharide)
In what pathogen is each serovar given a different name?
What are examples of gut localized infections?
- Enterovirulent E. coli
- Non-typhoid Salmonella
- Yersinia enterocoliticaVibrio cholerae
- Shigella spp.
What are examples of frequent systemic infections?
- Typhoid Salmonella
- Salmonella enterica (serovars Choleraesius and Dublin)
What are examples of infrequent systemic infections?
- Yersinia enterocoliticaNon-typoid Salmonella
What are key examples of Campylobacteriosis?
- Campylobacter jejuniCampylobacter coliHelicobacter pylori
What are 10 foodborne infections?
- -Vibrio cholera-Vibrio parahaemolyticus-Campylobacter jejuni-Listeria monocytogenes-Shigella-Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
- -Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)
- -Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Heidelberg, Typhi
- -Yersinia enterocolitica-Streptococcus pyogenes
What are 4 foodborne infections?
- Clostridium botulinumClostridium perfringens
- Bacillus cereus
- Staphylococcus aureus
What is the risk level of Vibrio cholera?
- serogroup 1 - 1000 cells
- other - 106
What foods are associated with Vibrio cholera?
Water, shellfish, turtles
What is the pH range of Vibrio cholera?
What is the optimal temperature range for Vibrio cholera?
What is the duration of Vibrio cholera?
onset 1-3 days
What are the symptoms of Vibrio cholera?
Rice water diarrhea
What is the infectious dose of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
- Kanagawa (+) - 105Kanagawa (-) - 1010
What foods are associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
What is the pH range of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
What salt range can Vibrio parahaemolyticus survive in?
What is the optimal temperature for Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
What is the duration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
What are the symptoms of Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
Vomiting, headache, low fevers, chills
What is the doubling time for Vibrio parahaemolyticus?
What is the infectious dose of Campylobacter jejuni?
What foods are associated with Campylobacter jejuni?
Raw milk, untreated water, poultry
What is the optimal pH for Campylobacter jejuni?
At what % salt does Campylobacter jejuni become bacteriocidal?
What is the optimal temperature range for Campylobacter jejuni?
What is the duration of Campylobacter jejuni?
What are the symptoms of Campylobacter jejuni?
Headache, diarrhea w/ blood/mucus, cramps, nausea, vomiting
What ages are most susceptible to Campylobacter jejuni?
Children and young adults
Campy j is a pedophile!
What foods are associated with Listeria monocytogenes?
Raw milk, chicken, coleslaw, RTE meats, cantaloupe
What is the optimal pH range for Listeria monocytogenes?
What is the optimal temperature for Listeria monocytogenes?
How many days can Listeria monocytongenes be incubated for before symptoms occur?
What are the symptoms of Listeria monocytogenes?
Fever, muscle aches, sometimes nausea/diarrhea
What is the infectious dose of Shigella?
What foods are associated with Shigella?
Salads, handled cooked foods, rice balls, milk, beans, luncheon meats, raw oysters, strawberries
What is the optimal temp for Shigella flexneri?
What is the optimal temp for Shigella sonnei?
What is the duration of Shigell spp.?
What are the symptoms of Shigella spp.?
Diarrhea (blood/mucus), ab pain, fever, vomiting
What is the infectious dose of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli?
108 - 1010 cells
What foods are associated with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli?
Contaminated water, raw veggies, fruit washed w/ cont. water
What is the optimal temp range for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli?
What is the incubation period for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli?
What is the duration of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection?
What are the symptoms of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli?
Rice water diarrhea, fever, cramps, nausea, dehydration
What is the infectious dose of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli?
What foods are associated with Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli?
Meats, acidic foods, undercooked ground beef, raw milk, unpasteurized apple juice, lettuce, manure-fertilized produce
What is the onset and duration of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli?
- Onset 1-14 d
- Duration 3-28 d
What are the symptoms of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli?
- NO FEVER
- Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome - acute kidney failure
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - multi-organ purpura bleeding, acute kidney failure
What happens when you try to treat Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli with antibiotics?
Increased toxin release
What is the infectious dose of Salmonella enterica?
What foods are associated with Salmonella enterica?
Poultry, red meat, eggs, milk/dairy, alfalfa sprouts, coconuts, papaya, watermelons, cantaloupes, baby food, chocolate bars
What is the optimal pH range for Salmonella enterica?
4.1 - 9.0
What % salt does Salmonella enterica live in?
What is the optimal temp range for Salmonella enterica?
What is the incubation time for Salmonella enterica?
What is the duration of Typhoid fever (Salmonella enterica)?
What is the duration of Parathyroid fever (Salmonella enterica)?
What are the symptoms of Salmonella enterica?
Nausea, fever, headaches, dehydration, constipation, ab pain, chills, bloody stools
What pathogen is very serious for infants?
What foods are associated with Yersinia enterocolitica?
Unpasteurized milk, contaminated food/water
What is the pH range of Yersinia enterocolitica?
What is the optimal temp range of Yersinia enterocolitica?
What are the symptoms of Yersinia enterocolitica?
Ab pain (like appendicitis), diarrhea, vomiting, fever, UTI, rheumatoid arthritis, septicemia, meningitis
What is the infectious dose of Streptococcus pyogenes?
What foods are associated with Streptococcus pyogenes?
Raw milk, handled foods (eggs/potato salad/sandwiches/pudding/dessert)
What is the optimal pH for Streptococcus pyogenes?
What is the optimal temp for Streptococcus pyogenes?
What is the onset time of Streptococcus pyogenes?
What are the symptoms of Streptococcus pyogenes?
Sore throat, tonsillitis, fever, headache, chills, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle pain, weakness
What type of toxin is Clostridium botulinum?
What foods are associated with Clostridium botulinum?
Fish, meat, fruit/veggies, honey
What is the optimal pH for the group I and II Clostridium botulinum?
- Group I ≤4.6
- Group II ≤5.0
What is the optimal temp for group I and II Clostridium botulinum?
- Group I - 10-12
- Group II - 3.3
How long does it take symptoms of Clostridium botulinum to become evident?
12 - 36 hr
What are the symptoms of Clostridium botulinum?
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, impaired vision/speech, fatigue, paralysis
What is the infectious dose of Clostridium perfringens?
108 - 109 cells
What foods are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
High protein foods, cooked meats, soups, stews
What is the optimal pH range of Clostridium perfringens?
At what salt  is Clostridium perfringens inhibited?
What is the optimal temp range for Clostridium perfringens?
What is the onset time of Clostridium perfringens?
What are the symptoms of Clostridium perfringens?
Pain, gas, diarrhea
What is the doubling time of Clostridium perfringens?
What is the infectious dose of Bacillus cereus?
What foods are associated with Bacillus cereus?
Cereals/starchy foods, unrefrigerated cooked rice (Emetic toxin), proteinaceous foods, soups, veggies (Diarrheal toxin)
What is the optimal pH range for Bacillus cereus?
What is the optimal temp for Bacillus cereus?
What is the onset time for Bacillus cereus (Emetic toxin)?
What is the onset time for Bacillus cereus (Diarrheal toxin)?
What are the symptoms for Bacillus cereus (Emetic toxin)?
What are the symptoms for Bacillus cereus (Diarrheal toxin)?
Watery diarrhea, pain/cramps
What is the infectious dose of Staphylococcus aureus?
What foods are associated with Staphyloccocus aureus?
High protein foods, high salt foods, creams, salads, bakery products
What is the optimal pH for aerobic Staphylococcus aureus?
What is the optimal pH for anaerobic Staphylococcus aureus?
What is the salt tolerance level of Staphylococcus aureus?
7-10% (20% max)
What is the temp range for Staphylococcus aureus?
What is the onset time for Staphylococcus aureus?
What are the symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus?
Nausea, vomiting, retching, cramps, sweats, chills, low temp
What is important about Staphylococcus aureus toxins?
Highly heat resistant (survives boiling)
How is contamination prevented/reduced during processing?
- Worker training
- Bagging of anus
- Careful evisceration
- Dipping knives in hot water
- Trimming visible contamination
- Rapid chilling of carcass
- Cleaning/sanitizing equipment
What are some intervention treatments during slaughter and dressing?
- Carcass washing w/ chlorinated water
- Carcass pasteurization
- Organic acids (acetic, lactic, citric)
- Chlorine dioxide
- UV light
What parts of the body are inspected during antemortem/post mortem inspections?
- Viscera (injury, disease, parasitic infection)
What pathogens are inhibited during refrigerated storage?
- Salmonella spp
- Escherichia coli
- Campylobacter spp.
What pathogens grow in refrigerated storage?
- Lactic acid bacteria (with high #)
- Spoilage bacteria
- -Enterbacteriaceae-Brochothrix thermosphacta
What are some aerobic spoilage organisms?
- Pseudomonas spp.
- Moraxella spp.
- Acinetobacter spp.
What organisms grow at low water activity levels?
- Listeria monocytogenesStaphylococcus aureusYeast and mold
What is acidification pH and how is it reached?
- Direct acidification
- Addition of fermentable carbs
What are the 2 types of mastitis?
What pathogens cause contagious mastitis?
- Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus agalactiae
What pathogens cause environmental mastitis?
- E. coliKlebsiella pneumoniaeKlebsiella oxytoca
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Streptococcus uberis
What are some examples of proteolytic bacteria in milk?
- Pseudomonas spp.
- Flavobacterium spp.
- Staphylococcus aureus
What are some lypolytic bacteria found in milk?
- Pseudomonas spp.
- Acinetobacter spp.
- Moraxella spp.
- Alcaligenes spp.
- Flavobacterium spp.
Pathogenic bacteria in raw milk
- Mycobacterium tuberculosisMycobacterium paratuberculosisStaphylococcus aureusCampylobacter jejuni
What are some barriers to growth in an egg?
- pH 9.3
- Viscosity of albumen
- Low non-protein [N]
What are the key principles of total count?
- Indicator of spoilage NOT food safety
- Acceptable lvls depends on product
- Monitors # NOT diversity
- Watch changes over time
What is does the presence of Coliform bacteria mean?
What are the traits of a good indicator org?
- Quick, easy, cheap
- Specific to contaminant
- Extraenteral (survive outside habitat)
- Very high 
- Presence = probability of pathogen NOT guarantee
What are 3 good indicator organisms?
- Enterobacteriaceae & subgroups (coliform)
- Clostridium perfringens
What are some characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae?
- Gram (-)
- Straight rods
- Acid/gas from glucose (lactate, acetate, formic acid)
What are Coliform bacteria?
- Lactose Fermenting Enterobactericeae
- Eg. E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.
- Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar (VRBG)
- 3M Petrifilm
- Enterobactericeae plate counts
- Enterobactericeae detection (VRBG, 3M Petrifilm)
- Coliform plate counts
- Most Probably Number technique (MPN)
What are the 2 take home messages for Coliforms?
- Most don't grow below 4 degrees
- Killed by pasteurization so if present, either didn't pasteurize or post-pasteurization contamination occurred
What is significant about Enterococci durans?
Extremely heat stable at 108 in some foods
What are some general characteristics of Clostridium perfringens?
- Spore former
- Found in many foods in low numbers
- Heating food germinates spores
What are general characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus as an indicator org?
- Common inhabitant of skin
- Org heat sensitive but not toxin
- Good ind. in RTE foods
- Good ind. in high salt foods (salt tolerant)
Staphylococcus aureus indicator test
- Coagulase test - blood plasma clots indicate presence of toxin
- *Not all coagulase + produce toxin
What do molds indicate?
- Environmental contamination
How do you test for mold?