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What kind of nociceptor sends sharp, localized, distinct sensations? Is it fast or slow?
A-delta fibers. They are fast, and myelinated.
What kind of nociceptor sends poorly localized, burning, persistent pain sensations?
Is it fast or slow?
C-fibers. They are slow, small and unmylenated.
Which type of pain fiber "closes the pain gate"?
Large A fibers close the gate.
(specifically, A-beta fibers, not the A-delta fibers that transmit sharp pain. But this level of knowledge isn't likely to be tested on.)
Which type of pain nocicepter fiber "opens the pain gate"?
Small C fibers.
What are four nociceptive sources of pain?
- Mechanical stimuli
- thermal stimuli
- chemical stimuli
- electrical stimuli
By what mechanism do endorphins reduce pain?
Endorphins are opiate-like and bind with opioid receptors in CNS.
They also inhibit the release of neurotransmitters such as Substance P (a neurotransmitter related to pain)
What does PQRSTU stand for, in regards to pain assessment?
- P - precipitating or palliative
- Q - quality or quantity
- R - region or radiation
- S - severity
- T - timing (when does it occur)
- U - (Other) - what helps it, how does it interfere with ADL?
What are some nursing diagnoses related to pain?
- Activity intolerance
- ineffective coping
- impaired physical mobility
- chronic low self-esteem
- impaired social interaction
- spiritual distress
- Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements
By what mechanism do non-opioid analgesics work, and where is their action?
- PNS - peripheral nervous system
- inhibits production of protaglandins. They also reduce fever.
By what mechanism and action site do opioids work?
They are agonist drugs which bind with opioid receptors in the CNS, blocking the transmission of pain.
What drug is given to reverse the effects of a narcotic (as in a case of overdose)? What is its action?
- Narcan (naloxone)
- it competes with the agonist drug for receptor sites