Biomechanical Model Cycling.txt

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Biomechanical Model Cycling.txt
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  1. Theoretical: Vertical Ground Reaction Force
    *speed up*

    A larger vertical ground reaction force creates greater friction force and greater external force to push against. Greater external force to push against allows greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force, ankle dorsiflexion muscle force, knee extension muscle force, knee flexion muscle force, hip extension muscle force, and hip flexion muscle force to be exerted.

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle. 

    Greater ankle dorsiflexion muscle force creates greater ankle dorsiflexion joint torque and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity. Greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    Greater knee flexion muscle force creates greater knee flexion joint torque and greater knee flexion angular velocity. Greater knee flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    Greater hip flexion muscle force creates greater hip flexion joint torque and greater hip flexion angular velocity. Greater hip flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (vertical ground reaction force) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  2. Real-World: Vertical Ground Reaction Force
    to create a larger vertical ground reaction force, you must ride on the hardest surface available
  3. Theoretical: Coefficient of Friction
    *speed up*

    A larger coefficient of friction creates greater friction force and greater external force to push against. Greater external force to push against allows greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force, ankle dorsiflexion muscle force, knee extension muscle force, knee flexion muscle force, hip extension muscle force, and hip flexion muscle force to be exerted.

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    Greater ankle dorsiflexion muscle force creates greater ankle dorsiflexion joint torque and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity. Greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    Greater knee flexion muscle force creates greater knee flexion joint torque and greater knee flexion angular velocity. Greater knee flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    Greater hip flexion muscle force creates greater hip flexion joint torque and greater hip flexion angular velocity. Greater hip flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (coefficient of friction) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  4. Real-World: Coefficient of Friction
    The rear tire should have a greater coefficient of friction than the front tire. To accomplish this, the rear tire should have the following characteristics compared to the front tire:

    (1) the rear tire should be made of softer materials than the front tire

    (2) the rear tire should have a rougher surface than the front tire

    (3) the rear tire should have lower air pressure than the front tire
  5. Theoretical: Muscle Force
    In order to use all torques possible, the foot must be securely connected to the bicycle pedals (pushing down/pulling up)

    For the ankle muscle force box:

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    Greater ankle dorsiflexion muscle force creates greater ankle dorsiflexion joint torque and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity. Greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (ankle plantar flexion muscle force and ankle dorsiflexion muscle force) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee muscle force box:

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    Greater knee flexion muscle force creates greater knee flexion joint torque and greater knee flexion angular velocity. Greater knee flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (knee extension muscle force and knee flexion muscle force) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the hip muscle force box:

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    Greater hip flexion muscle force creates greater hip flexion joint torque and greater hip flexion angular velocity. Greater hip flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (hip extension muscle force and hip flexion muscle force) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  6. Real-World: Muscle Force
    To create a larger muscle force, three factors that influence the size of the muscle force must be considered.

    (1) muscle size (increase via training)

    (2) muscle length (120% = most muscle force)

    (3) speed of muscle contraction (contracted slower = more muscle force)
  7. Theoretical: Moment Arm
    For the ankle moment arm box:

    A longer ankle plantar flexion moment arm at the ankle joint creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    A long ankle dorsiflexion moment arm at the ankle joint creates greater ankle dorsiflexion joint torque and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity. Greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (ankle plantar flexion moment arm and ankle dorsiflexion moment arm) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee moment arm box:

    A longer knee extension moment arm at the knee joint creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    A longer knee flexion moment arm at the knee joint creates greater knee flexion joint torque and greater knee flexion angular velocity. Greater knee flexion angular velocity creaters greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (knee extension moment arm and knee flexion moment arm) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the hip moment arm box:

    A longer hip extension moment arm at the hip joint creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    A long hip flexion moment arm at the hip joint creates greater hip flexion joint torque and greater hip flexion angular velocity. Greater hip flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying two factors that speed the body up (hip extension moment arm and hip flexion moment arm) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  8. Real-World: Moment Arm
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the line of pull of the muscle force.

    To increase the moment arm distance, you would need to move the line of pull of the muscle force further away from the joint's axis of rotation.

    One method for moving the line of pull of the muscle force would be to change the locations of the origin and insertion points for the muscle. This is not an option because it would be unethical to perform this type of surgery.

    The only way we can change the moment arm distance is by changing the angle of the joint.
  9. Theoretical: Mass
    *speed up*

    For the ankle mass box:

    Smaller body component and bicycle component mass distal to the ankle results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion). This creates greater ankle plantar flexion and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocities. Greater ankle planter flexion and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocities create greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (body component and bicycle component mass distal to the ankle) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee mass box:

    Smaller body component and bicycle component mass distal to the knee results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion). This creates greater knee extension and greater knee flexion angular velocities. Greater knee extension and greater knee flexion angular velocities create greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (body component and bicycle component mass distal to the knee) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the hip mass box:

    Smaller body component and bicycle component mass distal to the hip results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion). This creates greater hip extension and greater hip flexion angular velocities. Greater hip extension and greater hip flexion angular velocities create greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (body component and bicycle component mass distal to the hip) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  10. Real-World: Mass
    Short-term for body component mass

    (1) wear the lightest clothing possible

    (2) wear the lightest shoes possible

    Short-term for bicycle mass

    (1) use a bicycle made of lightweight materials (e.g., carbon fiber or aluminum)

    (2) use light weight wheels

    (3) carry as little equipment as necessary

    Long-term for body component mass

    (1) lose fat mass
  11. Theoretical: Radius of Resistance
    For the ankle radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the ankle results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This creates greater ankle plantar flexion and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocities. Greater ankle plantar flexion and greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocities create greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the ankle) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the knee results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater knee extension and greater knee flexion angular velocities. Greater knee extension and greater knee flexion angular velocities creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the knee) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the hip radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the hip results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater hip extension and greater hip flexion angular velocities. Greater hip extension and greater hip flexion angular velocities creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of resistance for the body component and bicycle component mass distal to the hip) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  12. Real-World: Radius of Resistance
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the center of mass of the body component.

    The length of the radius of resistance is determind by bone length and joint orientation. There is nothing we can do to decrease bone length. 

    However, similar to changing the moment arm distance, we can shorten the radius of resistance by changing the angles of the joints with the body component being rotated.

    Any change in a joint angle that brings a portion of the body component closer to the axis of rotation will shorten the radius of resistance.
  13. Theoretical: Application Time of Each Joint Torque
    For the ankle application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the ankle plantar flexion joint torque will create greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    A longer application time of the ankle dorsiflexion joint torque will create greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity. Greater ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (application time of ankle plantar flexion and ankle dorsiflexion torques) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the knee extension joint torque will create greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    A longer application time of the knee flexion joint torque will create greater knee flexion angular velocity. Greater knee flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (application time of knee extension and knee flexion torques) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the hip application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the hip extension joint torque will create greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    A longer application time of the hip flexion joint torque will create greater hip flexion angular velocity. Greater hip flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This coordinated increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (application time of hip extension and hip flexion torques) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  14. Real-World: Application Time of Each Joint Torque
    Each of these execution phases also serves as the preparation phase for the antagonistic joint torque (e.g., the execution phase for the concentric hip extension joint torque is also the preparation phase for the concentric hip flexion torque).

    Two execution phases must be performed at each joint:

    -Two concentric ankle torques (plantar flexion during the push down and dorsiflexion during the pull up)

    -Two concentric knee torques (extension during the push down and flexion during the pull up)

    -Two concentric hip torques (extension during the push down and flexion during the pull up)
  15. Theoretical: Radius of Rotation
    For the ankle radius of rotation box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component distal to the ankle joint creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints distal to the ankle.

    This increase in joint linear speeds distal to the ankle is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of rotation of the body component distal to the ankle) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.

    For the knee radius of rotation box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component distal to the knee joint creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints distal to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds distal to the knee is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of rotation of the body component distal to the knee) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time. 

    For the hip radius of rotation box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component distal to the hip joint creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints distal to the hip.

    This increase in joint linear speeds distal to the hip is the result of modifying a factor that speeds the body up (radius of rotation of the body component distal to the hip) and results in greater linear speed for the road cyclist and a decrease in movement time.
  16. Real-World: Radius of Rotation
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the point of interest on the body component.

    The length of the radius of rotation is determined by bone length and joint orientation. There is nothing we can do to increase bone length.

    However, similar to changing the moment arm and the radius of resistance, we can change the radius of rotation by changing the angles of the joints within the body component being rotated. 

    Any change in a joint angle that rotates a portion of the body component farther from the axis of rotation will lengthen the radius of rotation.
  17. Theoretical: Fluid Density
    A decrease in fluid density would decrease the drag force on the body as it moves through the fluid. This would decrease the external forces slowing the body down and would decrease the sum of joint forces that the body must absorb.

    To decrease in the sum of joint forces that the body has to absorb is the result of modifying a factor that slows the body down (fluid density) and results in less slowing down of the body. This would make it easier to maintain a greater linear speed and would result in a decrease in movement time.
  18. Real-World: Fluid Density
    During road cycling, the fluid you are moving through is air.

    There are three atmospheric conditions that would reduce fluid density:

    (1) higher altitude

    (2) lower humidity

    (3) warmer temperatures
  19. Theoretical: Coefficient of Drag
    A decrease in the coefficient of drag would decrease the drag force on the body as it moves through the fluid. This would decrease the external forces slowing the body down and would decrease the sum of joint forces that the body must absorb.

    The decrease in the sum of joint forces that the body has to absorb is the result of modifying a factor that slow the body down (coefficient of drag) and results in less slowing down of the body. This would make it easier to maintain a greater linear speed and would result in a decrease in movement time.
  20. Real-World: Coefficient of Drag
    A measure of the surface friction between the air and the surfaces of the road cyclist and the bicycle as the road cyclist moves through the air.

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