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what is thinking
mental representation and manipulation of info
What are the six different ways that people problem solve?
1. trail and error 2. algorithm 3. rule of thumb 4. availability heuristic 5. Representative heuristic 6. anchoring heuristic
what is algorithm?
a systematic pattern of reasoning. generally correct
Judgment based on information readily available in memory
ex. are you safer flying or driving?
Judging an event’s probability based on how typical
Which is more likely to be the winning lotto numbers?
1 2 3 4 5 6 23 30 16 8 3 21
Equally likely, but 2nd is more representative of a random sequence.
Hold firmly to an original guess. Advertisements make use of this.
Ex. How much would you expect to pay?
It’s just 3 payments$19.99!!
What are the three general barriers to effective problem solving?
1. Ill-defined problem-- What exactly is the problem?
2. Complex goal -can we solve this problem? -are there too many competing goals?
3. Lack of critical thinking - ex. confirmation bias
what is confirmation bias?
Focus on confirmatory information & avoid contradictory information
What is mental set?
Bias to solve a problem with a familiar approach
what is functional fixedness?
The inability to perceive a new use for an object
what is gambler's fallacy?
Bias that odds of event increases if the event hasn’toccurred recently
what are ways ppl can lack in critical thinking?
confirmation bias, mental set, functional fixedness, gambler's fallacy
what is reliability
reliability refers to the consistency of test scores over time. For example, you wouldn't trust a bathroom scale that gave you different reading each time you used it
what is construct validity
the degree to which a tesst measures what it purports to measure
what is predictive validity?
the degree to which test scores accurately predict future behavior or performance
what was Gardner's theory of intelligence
garnder rejected the view that there is a single entity called intelligence. Rather, he believes there exist different types of intelligence, called multiple intelligences, that vary from person to person
psychology ch. 7 thinking, language and intelligence part 1 (thinking, IQ, intelligence, language,
psychology thinking language intelligence part IQ heuristic problem solving validity development
7. psychology ch 7 thinking, language and intelligence part 1 (thinking, IQ, intelligence, language, heuristic, problem solving, validity, development)