psychology ch. 7 thinking, language and intelligence part 1 (thinking, IQ, intelligence, language,

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mikepl103
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242752
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psychology ch. 7 thinking, language and intelligence part 1 (thinking, IQ, intelligence, language,
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2013-11-07 20:04:02
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psychology thinking language intelligence part IQ heuristic problem solving validity development
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7. psychology ch 7 thinking, language and intelligence part 1 (thinking, IQ, intelligence, language, heuristic, problem solving, validity, development)
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  1. what is thinking
    mental representation and manipulation of info
  2. What are the six different ways that people problem solve?
    • 1. trail and error
    • 2. algorithm 
    • 3. rule of thumb
    • 4. availability heuristic
    • 5. Representative heuristic
    • 6. anchoring heuristic
  3. what is algorithm?
    a systematic pattern of reasoning. generally correct
  4. availability heuristic
    Judgment based on information readily available in memory

    ex. are you safer flying or driving?
  5. Representative heuristic
    Judging an event’s probability based on how typical

    ex. 

    Which is more likely to be the winning lotto numbers?

    • 1     2     3     4     5     6
    • 23   30    16   8     3     21

     Equally likely, but 2nd is more representative of a random sequence.
  6. anchoring heuristic
    Hold firmly to an original guess. Advertisements make use of this.

    • Ex.
    • How much would you expect to pay?

    $300, $400 

    It’s just 3 payments$19.99!!
  7. What are the three general barriers to effective problem solving?
    1. Ill-defined problem-- What exactly is the problem?

    • 2. Complex goal
    •     -can we solve this problem?
    •     -are there too many competing goals?

    • 3. Lack of critical thinking
    •     - ex. confirmation bias
  8. what is confirmation bias?
    Focus on confirmatory information & avoid contradictory information
  9. What is mental set?
    Bias to solve a problem with a familiar approach
  10. what is functional fixedness?
    The inability to perceive a new use for an object
  11. what is gambler's fallacy?
    Bias that odds of event increases if the event hasn’toccurred recently
  12. what are ways ppl can lack in critical thinking?
    confirmation bias, mental set, functional fixedness, gambler's fallacy
  13. what is reliability
    reliability refers to the consistency of test scores over time. For example, you wouldn't trust a bathroom scale that gave you different reading each time you used it
  14. what is construct validity
    the degree to which a tesst measures what it purports to measure
  15. what is predictive validity?
    the degree to which test scores accurately predict future behavior or performance
  16. what was Gardner's theory of intelligence
    garnder rejected the view that there is a single entity called intelligence. Rather, he believes there exist different types of intelligence, called multiple intelligences, that vary from person to person

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