cardiovascular system

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Author:
Renicheal
ID:
242764
Filename:
cardiovascular system
Updated:
2013-10-24 23:23:48
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med term
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Description:
chapter 8 cardiovascular system
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  1. Cardiovascular system consists of
    heart and blood vessels
  2. heart
    hollow, muscular organ lying in mediastinum, center of thoracic cavity between lungs
  3. pumping action of heart propels
    blood that contains oxygen, nutrients and other vital products
  4. arteries
    • carry blood away from heart,
    • strong and flexible,
  5. pulse
    surge of blood felt in arteries when blood is pumped
  6. arterial blood contains
    high concentration of oxygen and appears bright red
  7. arterioles
    smaller arteries
  8. walls of arteries and veins have 3 layers called
    • tunica externa
    • tunica media
    • tunica intima
  9. tunica externa
    outer coat composed of connective tissue for strength and elasticity
  10. tunica media
    middle layer composed of smooth muscle
  11. tunica intima
    thin inner lining composed of endothelial cells which provide a smooth surface
  12. vasoconstriction
    when it contracts; decreased blood flow
  13. vasodilation
    when it relaxes; increased blood flow
  14. capillaries
    microscopic vessels that join arterial system with venous system, walls are thing- single layer of endothelial cells
  15. capillaries allow for the exchange of
    water, gasses, macromolecules, metabolites, and waste between the blood and adjacent cells
  16. capillaries contain
    sphincters, that regulate flow of blood into tissues
  17. veins are formed from
    venules that develops from union of capillaries
  18. veins rely on other methods to return blood to heart such as
    • skeletal muscle
    • gravity
    • respiratory activity
    • valves
  19. blood carried in veins contain
    low concentration of oxygen and high concentration of carbon dioxide
  20. venules
    merged capillaries that form larger blood vessels
  21. veins
    vessels that return blood to heart to begin cycle again
  22. cardiovascular system
    • circulates blood,
    • delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • disposes waste
  23. conduction system
    aids lymphatic system in circulating its substances
  24. lymphatic system
    • drains fluid from tissues
    • returns fluid to bloodstream
  25. 3 major types of vessels
    • artery
    • capillary
    • vein
  26. artieries carry
    oxygenated(red) blood away from heart
  27. veins carry
    deoxygenated(purple) blood back to the heart
  28. pulmonary arteries carry
    deoxygenated blood to lungs
  29. pulmonary veins carry
    oxygenated blood back to heart for circulation
  30. oxygenated blood is
    red
  31. deoxygenated blood is
    purple
  32. heart is found in
    sac called pericardium
  33. 3 distinct layers of pericardium
    • endocardium
    • myocardium
    • epicardium
  34. endocardium
    serous membrane lines 4 chambers and its valves
  35. myocardium
    muscular layer of heart
  36. epicardium
    outermost layer of heart
  37. upper chambers
    collect blood
  38. lower chambers
    pump blood from heart
  39. 2 upper chambers
    right atrium(RA) and left atrium(LA)
  40. 2 lower chambers
    right ventricle(RV) and left ventricle(LV)
  41. right ventricle pumps blood
    to lungs(pulmonary circulation) FOR exygenation
  42. left ventricle pumps
    oxygenated blood to entire body(systemic circulation)
  43. superior vena cava (SVC)
    collects and returns blood to right atrium from upper body
  44. inferior vena cava (IVC)
    collects and returns blood to right atrium
  45. left and right pulmonary arteries
    carry blood from right ventricle to lungs
  46. left and right pulmonary veins
    carry blood from lungs back to left atrium of the heart
  47. aorta
    carries blood from left ventricle to body
  48. valves
    prevent regurgitation of blood
  49. coronary arteries
    branch from aorta and provide the heart with its own blood supply
  50. right coronary arteries
    provide the right side of the heart with blood
  51. left coronary arteries
    provide left side of heart with blood
  52. left coronary arteries divide into 2 branches called
    • left anterior descending artery
    • circumflex artery
  53. conduction tissue
    specialized tissue within heart with sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses
  54. 4 masses of specialized cells with nervous and cardiac characteristics
    • sinatrial node(SA)
    • atrioventricular node(AV)
    • bundle of his(AV bundle)
    • purkinje fibers
  55. sinatrial node(SA)
    pacemaker of heart
  56. atrioventricular node (AV)
    contract atria
  57. purkinje fibers
    contract ventricles
  58. blood pressure
    measures force of blood against arterial walls
  59. 2 phases of heartbeat
    • systole
    • diastole
  60. systole
    contraction phase - maximum force
  61. diastole
    relaxation phase - weakest force
  62. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  63. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  64. angina
    chest pain

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