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  1. What is cholesterol?
    Cholesterol is a fatty substance (wax-like) produced by all animals -> it is not a fat
  2. What is cholesterol required for?
    • cell membrane structure
    • vitamin D and hormone manufacture
    • digestion of fats -> used by liver to make bile acids
  3. What are sources of cholesterol?
    eggs, prawns, butter, foods rich in saturated fats and trans-fatty acids
  4. Note about cholesterol:
    - Plant foods do not contain cholesterol
    - 3/4 of the body's cholesterol is produced by the body (body makes it itself -> made in the liver and intestines
  5. Where is cholesterol carried in the body?
    through the blood by lipoproteins
  6. What is High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)?
    • referred to as the good cholesterol
    • removes cholesterol from arteries and takes it back to the liver
    • prevents build up of fatty deposits on artery walls
    • protects against heart disease (CVD - Cardiovascular Disease)
  7. What is Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)?
    • referred to as the bad cholesterol
    • high LDL -> cholesterol tends to be deposited on artery walls
    • causes fatty acid build up -> hardens and narrows arteries 
    • promotes heart disease (CVD - Cardiovascular Disease)
  8. How can one lower cholesterol?
    • avoid eating foods high in LDL cholesterol. ie. saturated fatty foods and trans-fatty foods
    • eating foods rich in carbohydrates and fibre
  9. Fact about cholesterol:
    - saturated fats -> increase LDLs
    - mono-unsaturated fats -> decrease level of LDL
    - poly-unsaturated fats -> reduces cholesterol
  10. What are micronutrients?
    They are vitamins and minerals which are needed in smaller amounts and their recommended daily intakes are usually measured in milligrams (mg) or micrograms (μg)

    • 1000μg = 1mg
    • 1000mg = 1g
  11. Describe vitamins.
    • vitamins are organic compounds that occur in small amounts in a wide variety of foods
    • vitamins are classified as either:
    •        -> water soluble - required often as they are excreted daily in urine, faeces and perspiration. They are easily destroyed by light and oxygen as well as through poor storage, food preparation and cooking
    •        -> fat soluble - sturdier and are stored in the body in fatty cells, including the liver, adipose tissue and kidneys
  12. Describe minerals.
    Minerals play a role in many chemical reactions within the body. Also form part of the structure of hormones, enzymes, vitamins and bones
  13. Describe these 4 vitamins functions, deficiencies, excess, food source and RDI
    - Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
    - Folate/Folacin/Folic Acid
    - Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid
    - Vitamin E (Tocopherols)
    • Vitamin B12
    • - Function: formation of red blood cells in bone marrow
    • - Deficiency: increased chance of folic acid deficiency
    • - Food Source: meat, milk and milk products, seafood, eggs
    • - RDI: men and women approximately 2μg, babies under 12 months between 0.3μg and 0.7μg
    • Folate/Folacin/Folic Acid
    • - Function: metabolism of proteins and produce red blood cells in association with Vitamin B12
    • - Deficiency: anaemia, sterility in males and females, and neurological diseases
    • - Excess: vomiting and diarrhoea, undetected deficiency in Vitamin B12
    • - Food Source: wholegrain cereals, avocados, milk and peanuts
    • - RDI: men, women, children, and adolescents approximately 200μg, babies under 12 months between 50-75μg

    • Vitamin C
    • - Function: promote absorption of Iron and Calcium, supports Folic Acid and Vitamin E in their functions
    • - Deficiency: poor resistance to infections, fatigue, irritability and depression, poor bone formation
    • - Excess: Vitamin B12 deficiency may occur
    • - Food Source: citrus fruits, potatoes, leafy vegetables and tomatoes
    • - RDI: men, women, children and adolescents approzimately 30mg, babies under 12 months between 25mg and 30mg

    • Vitamin E
    • - Function: protects red blood cells, protects fats and Vitamin A from being destroyed by oxidation, and assists Vitamin C in preventing the formation of carcinogenic substances in the digestive system
    • -Deficiency: reduced protection from carcinogenic substances in the digestive system
    • - Excess: weak muscles, nausea, Vitamin C deficiency 
    • - Food Source: wholegrain cereals, eggs, nuts, green vegetables
    • - RDI: men, women, children and adolescents approximately 8mg and babies under 12 months 4mg
  14. Describe these 2 minerals, their functions, deficiencies, excess, food source and RDI
    - Calcium
    - Iron
    • Calcium
    • - Function: formation of strong bones and teeth -> needed in conjunction with P, Vitamin C and Vitamin D
    • - Deficiencies: bone loss occurs, osteoporosis
    • - Food Sources: Milk and products, tofu,almonds, sesame seeds, most breads, dark green vegetables and seaweed
    • - RDI: pre-menopausal women, men and children 800mg/day and post-menopausal women 1000mg/day

    • Iron
    • - Function: forms part of haemoglobin protein which carries Oxygen around the body. When consumed with foods rich in Vitamin C, the absorption rate of iron increases
    • - Deficiencies: decreased production of red blood cells, iron-deficiency anaemia and decreased capacity to exercise
    • - Excess: problems in achieving and maintaining Fe balance due to difficulty in absorbing Fe from consumed food -> consume Fe without Vitamin C or with excess phylate, tea/coffee
    • - Food Sources: meat and fish, offal meats, egg yolks -> haem, legumes, green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds
    • *Absorption rate increases when Fe consumed with foods high in Vitamin C (eg. citrus fruits, broccoli, pumpkin)
    • - RDI: children and adolescents 10-13mg and menstrating women and girls 12-16mg due to monthly blood loss
  15. What is energy required for?
    • 1. Basal metabolic activity - the minimum amount of energy required to keep your body functioning and hence keep you alive
    • 2. Physical activity - energy required by muscles to enable you to move
    • 3. Digesting, absorbing and using food - need energy for these processes. Referred to as the thermic effect of food
  16. Facts about energy:
    - fat consumption: 20-30% of energy intake and saturated fat to only about 10% of this
    - carbohydrates: approximately 45-65% of energy -> 10-15% maximum from simple carbohydrates
    - minimum of 25mg in dietary fibre
    - protein: one gram per kilogram of body weight per day or between 15-25% of total dietary intake
  17. How do you calculate BMR?
    • for females = (bodyweight kg x 0.9 x 24 hours) x 4.184
    • for males = (bodyweight kg x 1.0 x 24 hours) x 4.184
    • total daily energy expenditure is a combination of BMR + energy used in physical activity + thermic effect of food (which depends on how much food you eat) -> thermic effect of food is usually 10% (multiply the total energy of food consumed by 0.1)
  18. How do you calculate BMI?
    Image Upload 1
  19. Explain Malabsorption Syndromes
    the difficulty in absorbing nutrients due to food intolerances/allergies
  20. What is Caeliac Disease?
    • a permanent intolerance to gluten (protein found in wheat, rye, barely and oats)
    • consuming gluten causes loss of villi in the small intestine ->needed for absorption of nutrients
    • therefore decrease villi = nutrients (eg. protein, viatmins, minerals) not being absorbed
  21. What is Lactose Intolerance?
    • unable to break down lactose in milk products (due to lack of enzyme lactase which digests lactose)
    • therefore lactose reaches the bowl (large intesting) without being digested -> this attracts water and bacteria (lactase is fermented and this produces gas)
    • *soy products are a suitable substitute: they contain no lactose, are high in calcium and are good sources of Vitamin D and phosphorus
  22. What are factors affecting basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
    • gender - males have a higher basal metabolic rate than females, due to higher rate of lean activity body tissues compared to adipose tissues
    • age - later years often see a decline in BMR due to less activity and reduced lean muscle tissue
    • exercise - BMR is increased during any exercise and it remains high for several hours after intense and prolonged exercise. The more exercise a person does, the greater the lean active body tissue and an increased BMR
    • hormones - certain hornonal conditions affect BMR. People with an overactive thyroid have a greater metabolic rate
Card Set
continuation of human nutrition: the fundamentals
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