Science Final Terms

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Science Final Terms
2010-06-20 19:27:34
finals science studying

Terms to review for science final
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  1. Thermal Energy
    The total potential and kinetic energy of all the particles in an object
  2. Thermal Conductor
    a material that conducts thermal energy well
  3. Thermal insulator
    a material that conducts thermal energy poorly
  4. Absolute Zero
    a temperature of 0 Kelvins, no radiation/ vibration, -273 .C
  5. Radiation
    the transfer of energy by waves moving through space
  6. Endothermic
    a description of a change in which a system absorbs energy from its surroundings
  7. Exothermic
    a description of a change in which a system releases energy into its surroundings
  8. Acid (rain)
    a compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water; a proton donor
  9. Neutralization
    a chemical reaction between an acid and a base
  10. Organic Compound
    compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen, often combined with a few other elements such as oxygen and nitrogen
  11. Network Solid
    a solid in which all the atoms are linked by covalent bonds
  12. Hydrocarbon
    an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon
  13. Carbohydrate
    a compound compsed of carbon, hyrdrogen, and oxygen in which the raion of hydrogen to oxygen to 2:1
  14. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
    a hydrocarbon that contains one or more double or triple bonds or a ring
  15. Straight-chain hydrocarbon
  16. -C-C-C-C- ex. Butane
  17. Branched-Chain Hydrocarbon (isomers)
    organic compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structural formulas
  18. Ring Hydrocarbon (cyclomers)
    • Ex. cyclobutane
    • ring/square shape
  19. Alkane
    single bonds
  20. Alkene
    Double bonds
  21. Alkyne
    Triple Bonds
  22. Aromatic hyrdrocarbon (ring structure)
    hydrocarbons that contain a ring structure similar to benzene
  23. Fossil Fuels
    rich deposits of hydrocarbon mixtures that formed from the remains of organisms
  24. 3 types of Fossil Fuels and where they come from
    • Coal: formed from plants
    • Natural Gas: formed from remains of marine organisms- main component= methane
    • Petroleum: formed from remains of marine organisms
  25. Products of Combustion
    • Complete: H2O and CO2
    • Incomplete: Carbon Monoxide
  26. Acid Rain is produced by...
    Carbon Dioxide dissolves in water droplets and forms carbonic acid, H2CO3. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere also dissolve in water, forming sulfuric acid, H2SO4, ad nitric acid. HNO3.
  27. Monomer
    a small organix molecule that joins with other monomers to form a polymer
  28. Polymer
    a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules are linked together by covalent bonds
  29. Synthetic Polymer (polyethylene)
    Rubber, Nylon, Polyethylene
  30. Natural Polymers
    • Produced in plant and animal cells
    • starches, cellulose, nucleic acids, proteins
  31. Energy
    the ability to do work
  32. Kinetic Energy
    • the energy an object has due to its motion
    • the kinetic energy of any moving object depends upon its mass and speed
  33. Synthetic Polymer (polyethylene)
    • vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the
    • energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to
    • motion from one location to another).
  34. Gravitational Potential Energy
    potential energy that depends upon an objects height above a reference point
  35. Factors that affect GPE
    GPE depends on its mass, its height, and the acceleration due to gravity
  36. Elastic potential energy
    the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed
  37. Chemical Potential Energy
    energy stored in chemical bonds
  38. Energy conversion (pendulum, bouncing ball, falling elephant, pole vaulter, hydroelectric plant, light bulb, ect.
  39. Law of Conservation of Energy
    energy cannot be created or destroyed
  40. Nonrenewable Energy resources
    • a source of energy that exists in limited quantites and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years
    • oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium
  41. Renewable Energy Resources
    • resources that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time
    • hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, and possibly, nuclear fusion
  42. Nuclear energy
    the energy stored in atomic nuclei
  43. Fission
    a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus is split into smaller parts
  44. Fusion
    a nuclear reaction in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
  45. E= mc2
    Einsteins equation says that energy and mass are equivalent and can be converted into each other
  46. Electric Charge
    a property that causes subatomic particles to attract or repel one another
  47. static discharge
    • the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two
    • objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or
    • induced by an electrostatic field
  48. Direct Current
    • a flow of electric charge in only one direction
    • used in flashlights and other battery-operated devices
  49. Alternating Current
    • a flow of electric charge that regularly reverses its direction
    • used in homes and schools
  50. electrical conductor
    a material through which charge can flow easily
  51. electric insulator
    a material through which charge cannot flow easily
  52. Resistance
    • Symbol:
    • Unit: Ohms
  53. Factors that will change resistance (& current)
    thickness, length, and temperature
  54. Superconductor
    a material that has almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures
  55. Voltage
    • Symbol: V
    • Unit: Volts
  56. Battery
    a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy
  57. Ohm's Law
    • the relationship if voltage, current, and restistance
    • V=IR
  58. Electric Circuit
    a complete path through which electric charge can flow
  59. Series circuit
    an electrical circuit with only one path through which charge can flow
  60. Parallel Circuit
    an electric circuit with two or more paths through which charge can flow
  61. Function of a circuit breaker
    its a switch that opens when the current in a circuit is too high
  62. Magnetic Poles
    a region on a magnet where the force produced by the magnet is strongest
  63. Magnetic field
    a field in a region of space that exerts magnetic forces; a field produced by magnets, by changing electric fields, or by moving charges
  64. ferromagnetic material
    a material that can be magnetized because it contains magnetic domains
  65. electromagnetic force
    a froce associated with charged particles, which has two aspects, electric force and magnetic force
  66. solenoid
    a coil of current-carrying wire that producecs a magnetic field
  67. electromagnet
    a solenoid with a ferromagnetic core
  68. electromagnetic device
    ex. electrical motor
  69. electric generator
    a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
  70. turbine
    a device with fanlike blades that turn when pushed; for example, by steam or water
  71. electromagnetic radiation
    the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
  72. speed of ALL electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum (c)
    • speed of light
    • about 300,000 km/s
  73. wavelength
    the distance between a point on a wave and the same point on the next cycle of the wave
  74. Frequency
    the number of complete cycles per unit time for a periodic motion
  75. electromagnetic spectrum
    the full range of electromagnetic radiation
  76. Visible Spectrum
    • Red
    • Orange
    • Yellow
    • Green
    • Blue
    • Indigo
    • Violet
  77. Color- What makes an object appear a certain color?
    • It's a matter of selective absorption and reflection of the varying wavelengths of light. Our eyes and brain work together to interpret the different wavelengths of light as different colors. White light is composed of all possible wavelengths of visible light, and sunlight is very nearly white.
    • Characteristics of various surfaces cause them to reflect or absorb certain wavelengths. The ones that are reflected to our eyes are what determine the color we perceive. To cite just a single example, if a ball is red, it reflects red light and absorbs the other colors. That's why it appears red.
    • The issue is slightly different for a source of light, and the answer speaks to all other things we see and the colors they appear to have.
  78. Incandescent Light Bulb
    • a source of electric light that works by incandescence (a general term for heat-driven light emissions)
    • incandescant: a description of an object hot enough to glow
  79. Greenhouse Effect
    a process in which gases in Earth's atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, allow visible light to pass through but absorb reradiated infrared radiation that warms the lower atmosphere
  80. Greenhouse Gases
    • CO2, H2O, and Methane(not produced through combustion)
    • Greenhouse gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
  81. Global Warming
    an increase in the temperature of Earth's lower atmosphere, caused in part by increased levels of carbon dioxide or water vapor
  82. Relative thickness of atmosphere to Earth's radius
    the thickness of a coat of paint over a basketball
  83. Water Cycle
    the continous movement of water in all its forms among Earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land
  84. Evaportation
    the process that changes a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the substance's boiling point
  85. Transpiration
    the loss of water through the leaves of plants
  86. Condensation
    the phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid
  87. Precipitation
    presipitate: a solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture
  88. Runoff
    water that flows over the Earth's surface
  89. Groundwater (streams, rivers, glaciers)
    the fresh water found beneath the Earth's surface within cracks and among particles of rock and soil
  90. Brownfield
    unused industrial lands that may or may not be contaminated, or that have been remediated
  91. Lead & Mercury
    • Pb: too much lead in the bloodstream can lead to organ damage and learning difficulties, the use of lead-based paint was banned in 1978.
    • Hg: Mercury is used in numerous industrial processes, but it is toxic and can damage the brain and nervous system. For this reason it should be handled with great care. It is particularly important to avoid inhaling mercury vapor.
  92. Rock Cycle
    • a series of processes in which rocks continuously change from one cycle to another
    • convection current in the mantle
  93. Areas of geothermal energy
    geothermal energy: thermal energy benearth the Earth's surface

    • -Volcanoes and fumaroles (holes where volcanic gases are released)
    • -Hot springs
    • -Geysers
  94. Magma/Lava
  95. Magma/Lava
    • magma: a mixture of molten rock and gases, including water vapor, which forms underground
    • lava: magma that flows over the Earth's surface
  96. Volcano
    a mountain that forms when magma reaches the surface
  97. Sedimentary Rock (limestone formation)
    rock that forms over time as sediment is squeezed amd cemented together
  98. Convection currents in the mantle: plate tectonics
    • convection currents: circulation of a fluid in a loop as the fluid alternately heats up and cools down
    • plate tectonics: the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere, called plates, move about slowly on top of the asthenosphere
  99. carbon sinks (reservoirs)
    • Processes that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they release. Land and the sea can act as carbon sinks.
    • natural or man-made systems that absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, such as trees, plants and the oceans.
  100. transfer processes: