Psych 111 Chapter Six

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hchristensen
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242824
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Psych 111 Chapter Six
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2013-10-25 13:24:15
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Psych 111
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Questions from Psych 111 Chapter 6 for Exam 2
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  1. What is the term for any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience?
    learning
  2. What is the term for a kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses?
    Conditioning
  3. What kind of conditioning occurs when the organism learns to associate two stimuli?
    classical conditioning
  4. What is the term for something that elicits the unconditioned response  (food) and is not learned?
    unconditioned stimulus
  5. What is the term for a response which is automatically produced? (salivating)
    unconditioned response
  6. What is the term for an originally neutral stimulus that elicits a behavior after being paired with a US (bell)?
    conditioned stimulus
  7. What is the term for a response elicited by the conditioned stimulus  (salivate to bell)?
    conditioned response
  8. What is the term for the phase of Classical conditioning when the US and CS are paired together?
    acquisition
  9. What is the term for what happens when you repeat the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus over time and the conditioned response will disappear?
    extinction
  10. What is the term for what happens when after a response has been extinguished it may spontaneously reappear after the
    passage of time with exposure to the conditioned stimulus?
    spontaneous recovery
  11. What is the term for pairing
    a neutral stimulus with the conditioned stimulus will create another
    conditioned stimulus, although a weaker conditioned response? More likely to
    show extinction
    higher order conditioning
  12. What is the term for what happens when after a stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus for some response, other, similar
    stimuli may produce the same reaction?
    stimulus generalization
  13. What is the term for when one learns to realize the differences between similar stimuli?
    stimulus discrimination
  14. What is the term for when a satisfying result strengthens/increases a behavior?
    Law of Effect
  15. What type of consequence is one that is not more or less likely to see behavior patterns change?
    neutral consequence
  16. What type of consequence is anything which will make a response more likely to occur?
    reinforcement
  17. What type of consequence is anything which will make a response less likely to occur?
    punishment
  18. What kind of reinforcer satisfies biological needs like food, water, and sex?
    primary reinforcer
  19. What kind of reinforcer satisfies through association with primary reinforcers? (e.g. money, praise, grades)
    secondary reinforcers
  20. What is the term for what happens when presentation or removal of a stimulus decreases the likelihood of a response?
    punishment
  21. What is the term for when something occurs (stimulus presented) to decrease a behavior? (spanked, mouth washed out with soap)
    positive punishment
  22. What is the term for when something is removed to decrease a behavior? (no TV, no dessert)
    negative punishment
  23. What is the term for a learning schedule in which the reward/punishment occurs each time the behavior occurs?
    continuous
  24. What is the term for a learning schedule in which the reward/punishment occurs when a response occurs only some of the time?
    intermittent/partial
  25. What is the term for a learning schedule in which reinforcement is delivered after a certain fixed number of responses?
    ratio schedules
  26. What is the term for a learning schedule in which a reinforcement is delivered after a certain amount of time has passed and the desired behavior has occurred?
    interval schedules
  27. What is the term for a learning schedule in which reinforcement is delivered after some average number of responses? (on average 7 times)
    variable ratio schedules
  28. What is the term for a learning schedule in which reinforcement occurs if a variable amount of time has passed since the previous reinforcer? (on average 5 minutes, could be 3 or 7 minutes)
    variable interval
  29. What is the term for a learning schedule in which a reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of responses? (every 4 times)
    fixed ratio schedule
  30. What is the term for a learning schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a fixed amount of time has passed since the past reinforcer? (5 minutes)
    fixed interval
  31. What is the term for reinforcing behavioral tendencies in a desired direction?
    shaping
  32. What is the term for reinforcing responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior? (used in shaping)
    successive approximation
  33. What theory of learning believes that there is a higher level cognitive process to how we learn, and this impacts attitudes, beliefs, and expectations?
    observational learning
  34. What are Bandura's four key components to observational learning?
    • attention
    • retention
    • reproduction
    • motivation
  35. Which one of Bandura's four key components to observational learning involves being aware of another's behavior and consequences?
    attention
  36. Which one of Bandura's four key components to observational learning involves having the capacity to store/retrieve what you have observed?
    retention
  37. Which one of Bandura's four key components to observational learning involves being able to behaviorally imitate what has been stored in memory?
    reproduction
  38. Which one of Bandura's four key components to observational learning is determined by a belief that the behavior will bring about a desired response?
    motivation

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