Blood Week 1.txt
Card Set Information
Blood Week 1.txt
Constituents of blood
Cellular components and Plasma components
Three main cell types of blood:
RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
What is serum?
Plasma w/o clotting factors
Anemia --> fatigue
Leukopenia --> infection
Reduced thrombocytes/clotting factors?
Thrombocytopenia/hemophilia --> bleeding
What can increased amount of cellular component indicate? (eg, leukocytosis)
Physiological response or malignant proliferation
Erythrocytosis = Hypoxia or Polycythemia Rubra Vera
Leukocytosis = Infection or Leukemia
Thrombocytosis = Response to inflammation or Essential thrombocytosis
Increased clotting factors?
List the three locations for blood production
Yolk Sac --> Liver/Spleen (5/6 weeks) --> Bone Marrow (5-6 months on)
What are cytokines?
What does hypoxia lead to? (growth wise)
Hypoxia --> EPO --> RBC
What does infection lead to? (growth wise)
Infection --> GCSF/GMCSF --> Neutrophils/Monocytes
What does hemorrhage lead to? (growth wise)
Hemorrhage --> Thromobopoeitin --> Platelets
Two defining characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) ?
Pluripotent and Capacity for self renewal
What does pluripotent mean?
Capacity to generate all cell lineages (but can't fully regenerate organism)
What does totipotent mean?
Ability to differentiate and form all cells of a complete organism
What does quiescent mean?
Dormant (not cycling); only 5% of HSC cycle at once
Diff between symmetric and asymmetric division?
Symmetric: parent stem cell to two identical daughters; Asymmetric: parent generates a daughter and another parent (regenerates itself)
Put these in order: Committed CFU, Stem Cell, Colony Forming Unit
Stem Cell (pluripotent, quiescent) --> CFU (high proliferative rate, high potential, limited self renewal) --> Committed CFU (high proliferative rate, lineage specific)
What is aplastic anemia?
Damaged bone marrow/stem cells (often result from radiation)
What are hematologic cancers?
Clonal expansion of hematopoetic cells induced by (epi)genetic changes; Leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma.
How do monoclonal tumours differ from polyclonal tumours?
Monoclonal tumours originate from only one crazy cell
Describe RBC shape and why it is that way
Biconcave disc for flexibility, maximum surface area for gas exch, laminar flow
What are the RBC roles?
Primary carrier of gases for cellular resp.; oxygen, CO2, NO; also possibly oxygen sensor
What is the lifespan of a RBC?
What is a reticulocyte?
A young RBC with no nucleus; 1% of red cells in peripheral blood
If RBC count/tissue oxygenationv is low, EPO level will be....
Where does EPO act and what does it do?
BFU-E and CFU-E; stimulate growth and maintain survival
Where is EPO made?
Peritubular cells of kidney
Describe primary Hemoglobin structure?
4 Globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta); Each chain linked to heme protein; Each heme has an iron molecule
What are the three types of Hemoglobin and what globin chains are they composed of?
Fetal--> 2 alphas/2 gammas; Adult 1 --> 2 alphas/2 betas; Adult 2 --> 2 alphas/2 deltas
Where are beta/gamma globin genes?
Where are alpha globin genes?
What is low hemoglobin called?
What occurs when we have lack of globin chain due to mutation on chromosome 16 or 11?
What occurs when a point mutation lead to a val-->glu?
Sickle cell disease
What is Hb-O dissociation curve shape and why?
Sigmoid; cooperativity between globin chains
What modifies the Hb-O curve?
Ph, 2,3 DPG,
List types of WBC
Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
What do platelets do?
Thrombocytes form a plug when they come into contact with damaged blood vessel wall; initiate coagulation cascade
Are platelets the smallest cell of blood?
Do platelets circulate in active form?
How long do they live and what stimulates their growth?
7-10 days; Thrombopoietin
How much does plasma volume increase in pregnancy?
How much does RBC mass increase by and what is the issue with this?
20-50%; Hb concentration falls 10-20 g/L
What is EPO stimulated by during pregnancy?
Which of the following does not increase during pregnancy: WBC, Platelets and/or clotting factors?
Platelet count stays the same
What are the components of plasma (BONUS: what is the biggest consituent)?
Water (95%), Proteins (albumin, gamma globulins, clotting factors), Electrolytes, Glucose, fats and minerals
What results from a deficiency of clotting factors and what is a possible cause?
Hemophilia due to liver disease (produces all except VIII)
What is the clinical relevance of immunoglobulin deficiency?
Increased susceptibility to infection (congenital or acquired immunodeficiency)
What are possible causes of albumin loss?
Nephrotic syndrome (peeing it out), liver disease, protein losing enteropathies
What is a CBC? Describe briefly how it is done
Complete Blood Count; Blood collected in EDTA, Ca++ chelator to stop clotting, place lyse/unlysed sample in automated cell counter
What does the lysed sample tell us?
Hb concentration, WBC stuff
What does the unlysed sample tell us?
RBC #, size (MCV), and distribution (RDW); Platelet count
What are the most important measurements of the CBC?
WBC count, Hb conc g/L, RBC count, MCV, RDW, Platelet count
What are some calculated (less relevant) components on the CBC?
Hematocrit (RBC x MCV), Mean cell Hb/MCH (Hb/RBC), Mean cell Hb conc/MCHC (Hb/Hct)