Psych 111 Chapter Eight
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Psych 111 Chapter Eight
Questions from Psych 111 Chapter Eight for Exam 2
What is the term for the smallest units of sounds which can be distinguished?
What is the term for the smallest units of meaning in a language?
What is the term for rules that specify how units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages?
What is the term for the structure of a language, with underlying rules of order/function for how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences?
What is the term for when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to "exception" cases?
What theory, developed by Benjamin Whorf, states that one's language determines one's thoughts?
What theory, developed by Chomsky, states that humans possess an inborn language mechanism?
language acquisition device
What is the term for the ability to produce language?
expressive (productive) language
What is the term for the ability to comprehend, process, and integrate the meaning of language?
What theory states that language is based on modeling, imitation, exposure, and reinforcement?
What theory states that humans are neurologically prewired to learn language?
nativist theory of language development
What theory states that both biology and experience make important contribution to language development?
interactionist theory of language development
What is the term for an extension of perception and memory? Mental representations are formed, recalled, and manipulated.
What is the term for a mental representation of a category? We often recognize an object as a member of a group.
What is the term for the fact that we rate things based on their similarity to models or prototypes which represent the main characteristics of a group?
What is the term for identifying members of a category based on characteristic features but this attribute may not be shared by all?
Family Resemblance Theory
What is the term for the fact that we categorize by comparing the image to other instances stored in our memory of members within the category and make a judgment about inclusion?
What is the term for the process by which we generate and evaluate arguments, organizing information into series of steps to reach conclusions?
What kind of reasoning involves figuring out what to do and reasoning toward an action?
What kind of reasoning involves reasoning directed toward a belief?
What kind of reasoning involves drawing conclusions from a set of assumptions? The conclusion is true if the premise is true.
What is the term for a form of deductive reasoning which consists of two premises and a conclusion?
What is the term for the fact that people are more likely to accept conclusions if they are believable as opposed to whether the argument is logical?
What is the term for the fact that how decisions or a problem is posed may change the decision-making task and the solutions?
What is the term for making and testing an educated guess about a problem/solution?
What is the term for mental rehearsal of the steps needed to solve a problem?
What is the term for the tendency to stick to solutions which have worked in the past?
What is the term for our tendency to rely on a function for an object and ignore other possible uses?
What is the term for the fact that we seek to confirm what we already believe?
What is the term for the fact that people often get sidetracked and it detracts from effective problem solving?
distraction by irrelevant information
What is the term for putting restrictions on our problem solving which don't exist?
What is the term for the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error?
What is the term for evaluating alternative and making choices among them?
What is the term for the thing that allows attractive attributes to compensate for unattractive attributes?
compensatory decision models
What is the term for the fact that we do not allow some attributes to compensate for others?
noncompensatory decision models
What is the term for the fact that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risk when evaluating potential gains?
What is the term for the fact that we are more likely to notice something based on its frequency as opposed to how likely it is to occur?
frequency format hypothesis
What is the term for the basic flawed assumption that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event?
What is the term for rating the attributes of each alternative and selecting the one which has the highest sum?
additive decision model
What is the term for gradually eliminating options whose attributes fail to satisfy a minimum criteria?
elimination by aspects
What is the term for searching for the steps to reduce differences between the current situation and desired goal?
What is the term for shortcuts that guide us in decision-making about probabilities?
What is the term for decision-making based on the fact that things which are easily recalled seem to be typical/common?
What is the term for matching an object to a "concept" or "category" without processing how likely the fit may be?