Psych 111 Chapter Eight

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hchristensen
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242857
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Psych 111 Chapter Eight
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2013-10-25 17:22:49
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Psych 111
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Questions from Psych 111 Chapter Eight for Exam 2
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  1. What is the term for the smallest units of sounds which can be distinguished?
    phonemes
  2. What is the term for the smallest units of meaning in a language?
    morphemes
  3. What is the term for rules that specify how units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages?
    grammar
  4. What is the term for the structure of a language, with underlying rules of order/function for how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences?
    syntactical rules
  5. What is the term for when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to "exception" cases?
    overregularizations
  6. What theory, developed by Benjamin Whorf, states that one's language determines one's thoughts?
    linguistic relativity
  7. What theory, developed by Chomsky, states that humans possess an inborn language mechanism?
    language acquisition device
  8. What is the term for the ability to produce language?
    expressive (productive) language
  9. What is the term for the ability to comprehend, process, and integrate the meaning of language?
    receptive language
  10. What theory states that language is based on modeling, imitation, exposure, and reinforcement?
    behaviorist theory
  11. What theory states that humans are neurologically prewired to learn language?
    nativist theory of language development
  12. What theory states that both biology and experience make important contribution to language development?
    interactionist theory of language development
  13. What is the term for an extension of perception and memory? Mental representations are formed, recalled, and manipulated.
    thought
  14. What is the term for a mental representation of a category? We often recognize an object as a member of a group.
    concepts
  15. What is the term for the fact that we rate things based on their similarity to models or prototypes which represent the main characteristics of a group?
    prototypes
  16. What is the term for identifying members of a category based on characteristic features but this attribute may not be shared by all?
    Family Resemblance Theory
  17. What is the term for the fact that we categorize by comparing the image to other instances stored in our memory of members within the category and make a judgment about inclusion?
    Examplar Theory
  18. What is the term for the process by which we generate and evaluate arguments, organizing information into series of steps to reach conclusions?
    reasoning
  19. What kind of reasoning involves figuring out what to do and reasoning toward an action?
    practical reasoning
  20. What kind of reasoning involves reasoning directed toward a belief?
    theoretical reasoning
  21. What kind of reasoning involves drawing conclusions from a set of assumptions? The conclusion is true if the premise is true.
    deductive reasoning
  22. What is the term for a form of deductive reasoning which consists of two premises and a conclusion?
    syllogism
  23. What is the term for the fact that people are more likely to accept conclusions if they are believable as opposed to whether the argument is logical?
    Belief Bias
  24. What is the term for the fact that how decisions or a problem is posed may change the decision-making task and the solutions?
    framing
  25. What is the term for making and testing an educated guess about a problem/solution?
    hypothesis testing
  26. What is the term for mental rehearsal of the steps needed to solve a problem?
    mental simulation
  27. What is the term for the tendency to stick to solutions which have worked in the past?
    mental set
  28. What is the term for our tendency to rely on a function for an object and ignore other possible uses?
    functional fixedness
  29. What is the term for the fact that we seek to confirm what we already believe?
    confirmation bias
  30. What is the term for the fact that people often get sidetracked and it detracts from effective problem solving?
    distraction by irrelevant information
  31. What is the term for putting restrictions on our problem solving which don't exist?
    unnecessary constraints
  32. What is the term for the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error?
    insight
  33. What is the term for evaluating alternative and making choices among them?
    decision making
  34. What is the term for the thing that allows attractive attributes to compensate for unattractive attributes?
    compensatory decision models
  35. What is the term for the fact that we do not allow some attributes to compensate for others?
    noncompensatory decision models
  36. What is the term for the fact that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risk when evaluating potential gains?
    prospect theory
  37. What is the term for the fact that we are more likely to notice something based on its frequency as opposed to how likely it is to occur?
    frequency format hypothesis
  38. What is the term for the basic flawed assumption that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event?
    conjunction fallacy
  39. What is the term for rating the attributes of each alternative and selecting the one which has the highest sum?
    additive decision model
  40. What is the term for gradually eliminating options whose attributes fail to satisfy a minimum criteria?
    elimination by aspects
  41. What is the term for searching for the steps to reduce differences between the current situation and desired goal?
    means-end analysis
  42. What is the term for shortcuts that guide us in decision-making about probabilities?
    heuristics
  43. What is the term for decision-making based on the fact that things which are easily recalled seem to be typical/common?
    availability heuristic
  44. What is the term for matching an object to a "concept" or "category" without processing how likely the fit may be?
    representative heuristic

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