Rbc indices and abnormalities .txt

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Anonymous
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242863
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Rbc indices and abnormalities .txt
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2013-10-25 17:31:46
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blood
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    • author "me"
    • fileName "Rbc indices and abnormalities "
    • tags ""
    • description ""
    • Put these in order: Proerythroblast, Pluropotential stem cell, CFU-E, Erythrocyte, Erythroblast, Reticulocyte
    • Pluripotential stem cell --> CFU-E --> Proerythroblast --> Erythroblast --> Reticulocyte --> Erythrocyte
  1. What organ detects oxygen levels to release EPO? What other proteins stimulate erythropoiesis?
    Kidney (in the case of pulmonary dysfunction, shift in O-Hb dissociation curve, Low atm. O2); Insulin and ILGF1 also increase erythropoiesis
  2. What surpresses erythropoiesis?
    Inflammatory Cytokines (IL1, TNF-y, TGF-B), Drugs, HIV, Increased suppressor T lymphocytes
  3. Where does EPO bind?
    It binds on committed eythroid cells in the bone marrow
  4. How long does it take for EPO to result in an increased reticulocyte count?
    4-5 days
  5. How long does it take for EPO to increase hematocrit?
    1 week or more
  6. What percent of RBCs are replaced daily?
    10%
  7. How is the shape of the RBC maintained?
    By the membrane skeleton (actin, spectrin, anykrin and protein 4.1)
  8. How much of the diameter of a RBC is pallor (pail)?
    1/3 of diameter
  9. What provides RBC with energy and do they have mitochondria?
    Glycolysis and NO! Not even a nucleus
  10. Do RBCs have inclusions (Build up of nonliving matter inside a cell) ?
    No
  11. What percent of RBC mass is Hb?
    33%
  12. Normal adult Hb - Match: (HbA, HbA2, HbF) and (2%, 1%, 97%)
    HbA - 97%, HbA2 - 2%, HbF - 1%
  13. What are qualitative Hb disorders?
    The quality of Hb is affected; Hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease)
  14. What are quantitative Hb disorders?
    Decreased amt of Hb (anemias, thalassemias), Increased amt of Hb (smoking, EPO, high altitude)
  15. What type of Hb can all other types be converted to? What is it used for?
    Cyanmethemoglobin; it is stable and can be accurately measured by spectrophometer
  16. What are normal Hb levels (g/L)?
    Adult male: 140-180 g/L; Adult female: 120-160 g/L
  17. What does hematocrit represent? What is a way of estimating it?
    Proportion of the volume of a blood sample that is occupied by RBCs; Centrifuge it, pack the RBCs into small volume (may trap some plasma)
  18. What can cause false high hematocrit?
    Sun stroke, shock, severe burns, dehydration and fever
  19. What can cause false low hematocrit values?
    Pregnancy, heart failure, fluid overload
  20. How is hematocrit calculated?
    HCT = RBCs x MCV
  21. How is MCV calculated?
    It is measured by the instruments or MCV = HCT/RBCs x 1000
  22. What is Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)?
    Amount of hemoglobin per RBC; MCH = Hb (g/L)/RBCs (x10^12) [picograms of Hb/cell]
  23. What is Mean Corpuscular Hb Concentration?
    Hb concetration within circulating RBC; MCHC = Hb/HCT
  24. What is the Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)?
    A measurement of the amount that RBCs vary in size (reflects variability in cell size and not cell width itself); Normal range is 11-15%
  25. RBC Parameter: Decreased number
    Decreased production, Increased destruction/consumption, Loss (acute or chronic)
  26. RBC Parameter: Increased number
    Benign conditions, neoplasms
  27. RBC parameter: Size Classifications
    Microcytic, Normocytic, Macrocytic
  28. RBC Parameter: Color
    Normochromic, Hypochromic, Polychromasia
  29. What does high RDW represent? Anisocytosis or Poikolocytosis
    Anisocytosis
  30. What does polychromasia indicate?
    Increase number of reticulocytes in peripheral blood
  31. What does poikilocytosis mean?
    Variable shape of RBCs
  32. What does ansiocytosis mean?
    Variable size of RBCs
  33. What is rouleaux?
    Stacks of RBCs
  34. When is anisocytosis found?
    Deficiency anemias, post transfusion, reticulocytosis
  35. When is poikilocytosis found?
    Hemolytic anemias, myeloproliferative neoplasms?
  36. What is a spherocyte? What is the clinical significance? When are they seen?
    Spherical RBC; Decreased membrance redundancy; Hereditary, immune related, thermal injury, Microangiopathic hemolytic anemias
  37. What is an elliptocyte? When are they seen?
    Pencil shaped RBC; Hereditary, thalassemia, severe iron deficiency
  38. When are random abnormal shapes seen?
    Mechanical destruction and hemolytic anemias; Fragmented cells (schistocyte/helmet cells)
  39. Three abnormal Hb disorders:
    HbS (glu6 --> val), HbC (glu6-->lys), HbE (glu26-->lys)
  40. What are the effects of decreased Hb on colour and size?
    Microcytosis and Hypochromasia (TAILS)
  41. What is a tear drop RBC caused by?
    Myelofibrosis, infiltration of marrow by neoplastic cells, hemolytic anemia
  42. What is an aganthocyte?
    Irregulary spiculated cells; Spur cell; Altered cell membrane lipids
  43. What is an echinocyte?
    Regulary spaced spicules; Burr cell; Artifact, Uremia/chronic renal disease, liver disease
  44. What is a target cell and when do we see them?
    RBC that has the appearance of a bulls eye target; thalassemia, iron defiency, liver disease, hemoglobinopathy, post splenectomy, artifact
  45. When are macrocytes mostly seen?
    B12/folate def, alcoholism, drugs/chemo, MDS, liver disease
  46. What is a Howell-Jolly body?
    A remnant of DNA in an RBC; common in hemolysis, splenectomy, hyposplenism, megaloblastic anemia
  47. What is a Heinz body?
    Denatured and precipitated Hb in RBC; common in G6PD def, Unstable hemoglobinopathies, oxidant drugs, severre alcoholic liver diseases
  48. What is basophilic stippling?
    Aggregation of ribosomes RNA in RBC; common in thalassemia, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemia
  49. When is polychromasia common?
    Increased reticulocytes, acute blood loss, recovery of BM, new born
  50. When can we find nucleated RBCs?
    Myelofibrosis, MPN, MDS, Leukoerythroblastic conditions

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