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loss of part of a chromosome
- addition of extra copy of part of a chromosome
- 1. tandem - duplicated area immediately adjacent to original segment
- 2. displaced - located away from the original
- 3. reverse - inverted segment
- part of chromosome is reversed in orientation
- can be paracentric or pericentric (includes the centromere)
part of chromosome becomes incorporated into different (nonhomologous) chromosome
gain entire sets of chromosomes, causing chromosome number to change from 2n 3n, 4n, etc. 2 types: autopolyploidy or allopolyploidy
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