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What did the dichotic listening task have participants do and what did it reveal?
- participants must attend to (shadow) one ear only.
- participants are able to give very little information on information they are not paying attention to
What did the basketball-gorilla video reveal?
Information which is attended to is better processed than information which is not attended to
What are the 2 empirical demonstrations of attention?
auditory attention and visual attention
What was the cued detection paradigm and what did reveal?
- Test where participants were given an expectation
- visual attention can include points in space one is is not specifically looking at
inattention (change) blindness
- very little is processed about unattended information
- failure to notice large changes in one's environment
What is incorrect about Broadbent's filter theory?
- we cannot process unattended info
Treismen's theory of Attenuation
unattended information is not filtered out, just diminished, may still be processed
Cocktail party effect (and what theory does it prove)
- You can hear your name spoken at a loud party, even if you're not listening for it
- proves theory of attenuation
Is attention spatial or object based? And which study proves that?
- Object based- attention does not focus on any one point in space, it focuses on objects
- Inhibition of Return (Cohen & Posner)
unilateral spacial neglect
failure to be aware of objects in one side of space, even in their own mental representations
Do people with unilateral spacial neglect have a sensory input problem?
- no damage to visual system
- information is collected, but not attended to
illusionary conjunctions and what they tell us about how vision is processed in attention
- in rapid presentation, subjects may mis combine color and form. Ex. green S becomes blue S, blue B becomes green B
- SB -> SB
- features are processed independently and then combines
bottom up processing (in attention)
- very important info catches your attention
- ex. loud noises or a car's break lights
top down processing (in attention)
- attention can be deployed strategically
- ex. watching location for enemy, waiting for light to turn green
How do top down and bottom up info interact?
Top down processing determines what is important info (to be processed by bottom up)
Context: a gunshot wouldn't be salient info at a shooting range
- processing multiple types of information at the same time
- for ex. color, shape, size, orientation
first to investigate memory experimentally
What are four of Ebbinghaus' findings about memory?
- learning is improved with repetition
- longer lists take longer to learn
- forgetting is a function of time
- accuracy varies by position in list
sensory systems can store input for a brief amount of time
what does the tachistoscopic presentation test reveal about memory?
large amounts of visual information is retained for a very sort period of time (in sensory memory)
What was incorrect about "The Magical Number 7 plus or minus two"
There is no hard and fast number for how many items a subject can repeat
what are 2 types of sensory memory?
iconic (visual) and echoic (hearing)
What was incorrect about Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory?
short term memory theory which believed that incorrect: short term memory is just temporary storage, where memory just passes through
What are five components of the working memory?
- temporary storage of info
- "buffer" for info used in processing
- active storage
- separate verbal and visual storage
- is used anytime info is manipulated before it enters long-term memory (not just at 1st input)
According to Baddeley what are the 2 working memory systems?
articulatory loop and visuospatial sketchpad
- system of working memory
- to retain verbal info, info must be "said in one's head" (sub-vocalization)
Phonological similarity effect
- proves articulatory loop
- sequences containing similar sounding items are harder to store than sequences containing phonologically dissimilar items
articulatory suppression effect
subjects who must repeat a syllable while memorizing have difficulty storing info
provides a virtual environment for physical simulation, calculation, visualization and optical memory recall
proof of two distinct working memory systems?
It is easier for us to retain visuospatial info and verbal instead of two pieces of verbal or two of visuospatial
What was the effect of HM's condition (removed hippocampus)?
impaired ability to form new memories, could recall most old memories
the role of the hippocampus in memory
consolidates memory, not final location for long term memory (otherwise HM would have no memories)
2 types of long term memory
Implicit and explicit
Explicit (declarative) long term memory
memories we have a conscious awareness of
3 types of explicit memories
- episodic: memory of personal events
- semantic: knowledge of impersonal facts
- declarative: memory which can be verbalized
implicit long term memory
- memories we don't have conscious access to
- ex. procedural, motor skills
Examples of how HM used his implicit memory
- Tower of Hanoi
- Mirror tracing
temporal lobes role in memory
important for articulation of what you remember
cerebellum's role in memory
plays a role in how motor actions are learned and remembered
Can retrieved memories be altered before being stored again?
process of organizing info into meaningful units to remember easier
serial position effect
items placed in the beginning or end of a list are remembered better than those in middle
How do schema's influence memory?
Schemas are cognitive maps or structures which help us to organize, perceive and use info, but can lead to biased encoding
How is memory stored?
in association networks -> activation of one memory increases likelihood that a nearby memory will be activated
- memories are better recalled when the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation
- i.e. if something is learned underwater, it is better recalled underwater than on land
- memories are recalled better when internal state is similar in recall & encoding
- i.e. if you learn something drunk, it is better performed drunk then sober
method of loci
memory strategy where you associate items you want to remember with physical places
- remembering to do something
encoding specificity principle
any stimulus encoded along with an experience can trigger memory of experience
when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
forgetting over time
repeating item over and over
encodes the information in more meaningful ways (deeper processing) i.e. how it relates to oneself
implicit memory which involves motor skills
spreading activation models of memory
activation of one node (associated w. a specific memory) leads to activation of associated nodes
information processing model of memory
- memory is based on computer functioning
- memory involves encoding storage and retrieval
- transfer of memories into long term memory
- aided by sleep
- leads to formation and reinforcement of neural networks
When is information most likely to be stored?
If it promotes adaptation, enhances survival or enhances reproductive capability
How in info organized in an association network?
In categories for easy retrieval
type of explicit memory which can be verbalized
Bisiach & Luzzantti experiment
study of unilateral neglect where patients recalled only one half of a popular plaza, reveals unilateral neglect extends to mental images