Philosophy 105 Chapters 9-13 (Exam 2)

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gladyss31
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Philosophy 105 Chapters 9-13 (Exam 2)
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2013-10-31 23:52:55
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Philosophy Chapter 10 11 12 13
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  1. 1) What are three key elements of the theory of cognitive dissonance?
    • 1) People are aware of cognitive dissonance 
    • 2)
    • 3) To relieve feeling people, will employ two struggles 
  2. What are the two strategies people employ to relieve or lessen cognitive dissonance? Give some examples of each.
    • 1)
    • ex.

    • 2)
    • ex.
  3. Identify the 6 factors or criteria for assessing the reliability of memory?
    • 1) How good physical condition
    • 2) how reliable
    • 3) How well positioned
    • 4) False Analogy
    • 5)
    • 6)
  4. Identify the 4 factors or criteria for assessing the reliability of memory?
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
    • 4)
  5. Identify the 5 factors of criteria for evaluating general (eyewitness) testimony.
    • 1)Credibility of witness - are they biased? If sleeping with Fred's wife and claims Fred as guilty then can be suspected bias.
    • 2)Positioned well - Cannot say you saw the bear on campus when you were at The Little Professor.
    • 3)Consistency - When they interview the witness 6-8 months before the trial just to check consistency of story. 
    • 4)Plausibility - Is it really possible?
    • 5)Corroboration - its evidence which may include: 
    •      *supporting testimony
    •      *corroborating physical evidence (letter, emails)
    •      *documents (bullet proofs, DNA)
    •      *video and audio tapes
  6. What is the difference between an epistemic authority (i.e., and expert) and a deontic authority?
    Epistemic (expert) authority - authority because of the knowledge he/she possesses

    Denotic Authority - authority based on power
  7. Identify the 4 criteria for judging a generalization.
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
    • 4)
  8. What does it mean for a property to be relevant to a generalization?
  9. Define: sample; population; projected property.
  10. Identify the 4 criteria for judging a generalization.
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
    • 4)
  11. What does it mean for a property to be relevant to a generalization?
  12. What does it mean for a sample to be stratified (or matched to the general population)?
    • A sample is stratified (matched to general population) if it shares all properties relevant to the projected proportion with the population in the same percentages. (Usually Highly Accurate)
    • Ex. If 25% of America Latino, 25% of my sample should be Latino etc., etc.
  13. What does it mean for a sample to be randomly selected?
  14. What is a time-lapse sample?
  15. What is exclusion bias? Self-selection bias?
    • Exclusion bias - systematically exclude some segment of population under court. Only applies to human samples.
    • Self selection bias - allow people to volunteer or not volunteer they will be madder more emotional more convinced etc. 
  16. What is push polling?
    fake polling propaganda technique when you pretend to ask questions in a poll but ask loaded questions affecting your opponent
  17. What does it mean to say that laws are defeasible? 
  18. What is the key factor or critertion for assessing the application of a general rule to a new case (i.e., inductive instantiation)? 
    New case be typical not unusual. Representative not unrepresentative. 
  19. Identify the 5 factors or criteria for assessing analogical arguments. What is the most important?
    • 1: Numerous Analogs
    • 2: Known Relevant similarities
    • 3: Known Relevant Differences (Most Important) 
    • 4: How Vary Analogs In Other Respects
    • 5: More Appropriate Margin of Error The Better

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