Law enforcement intelligence analysis final examination prep, card set 1

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  1. define intelligence
    Intelligence is the end product of a complex process, sometimes physical but always intellectual. The end product maybe a thorough description of the state of affairs, informed judgment, a single fact or best guess.
  2. define analysis
    it is that activity whereby meaning, actual or suggested, is derived through organizing and systematically examining diverse information.
  3. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    1.Support the police executive. ( Help the chief, Commissioner or superintendent to think outside the box)
  4. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    2.  develop and maintain information on organized criminal groups or suspected terror/supporters and their activities.
  5. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    3. support strategic, tactical, operational and protective law enforcement operations.
  6. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    4. Support intelligence and investigate targeting
  7. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    5. provide support and crisis situations
  8. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    6.  monitor the potential for criminal activity.
  9. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    7.Conduct counterintelligence
  10. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    8.  develop indications and warnings ( based on criminal competitiveness, violence, criminal enterprises, corruption, suspicious activity.)
  11. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    9.  Assist criminal groups/organizations potential for violence, economic growth/expansion (geographic), recruiting, mobility, and corruption.
  12. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    10. Delienate the criminal infrastructure in the context of criminal and terrorist organizations and prioritize case for targeting.
  13. Identify the purposes of intelligence (11 purposes)
    11.  support law enforcement intelligence databases
  14. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  15. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  16. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  17. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  18. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  19. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  20. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  21. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
  22. Identify the elements that comprise the intelligence process, in order (nine parts)
    indexing, storage, repository
  23. What are the three types of intelligence?
    • 1. strategic
    • 2. tactical
    • 3. operational
  24. Identify the five ways intelligence processes initiated
    1.  the chief, Commissioner or designee provides  information requests or asks questions to support a policy initiative; or states imperative concerning a criminological issue. ( Information requests or questions can concern short – or long – term issues)

    2. the intelligence unit commander,  anticipating the Chiefs interests, generates information requirements or issues imperatives.

    3. the intelligence process may be initiated by criminological or non–criminological events

    4. the process may be initiated to update earlier generated intelligence information and products (i.e. assessments)  held believed to be stable. ( Remember, intelligence information is not static)

    5. The process may be initiated as a matter of standard operating procedure
  25. defined reasonable suspicion
    reasonable suspicion is (established)  based on information which establishes sufficient facts to give to a trained law enforcement or criminal investigative agency officer, investigator, or employee a basis to believe that there is a reasonable  possibility that an individual or organization is involved in a definable criminal activity or enterprise.
  26. list the nine causes of intelligence failure
    • 1. absence of an intelligence component
    • 2.  overestimation
    • 3. underestimation
    • 4. lack of communication
    • 5.  subordination of intelligence to policy
    • 6. bias
    • 7. denial
    • 8. unavailability of information
    • 9. received opinion
  27. Identify 11 core competencies that you feel analysts should possess
    • 1.  good writing skills
    • 2.  good oral skills
    • 3.  computer skills
    • 4.  possess professionalism/liaison
    • 5.  flexibility/adaptability
    • 6.  capacity/desire to learn
    • 7.  possess initiative/motivation
    • 8.  ability to organize, plan and prioritize
    • 9.  knowledge of current events
    • 10.coaching/teaching skills
    • 11. operate under minimum supervision
  28. The definition of strategic intelligence is?
    An end product  about structure, infrastructure, activities, movements, plans, capabilities, intentions and motivations of criminal and terrorist organizations.
  29. What is an example of tactical intelligence?
    tactical intelligence can be the beginning of developing base–line information  about a criminological issue,  it can be the basis for intelligence development
  30. what are some  benefits to operational intelligence?
    officer survival information, assisting uniform officers to better handle specific calls, better response to specific locations, or better to handle specific types of offenders.
  31. What is an example of tactical intelligence?
    developing the criminal network surrounding a specific bad actor
  32. What is  the definition of strategic intelligence?
    this the end product used for the formation of policy and plans ( at federal, state, county, municipal and local jurisdictions). It is meant to support long-range planning.
  33. what is an example of operational intelligence?
    It is information, knowledge or end product that supports an ongoing investigation. You may be developed as a result of an ongoing investigation or enforcement action
  34. What is the definition of protective intelligence?
    this type of intelligence is in an product " about persons and organizations that may have an interest, motive, intention and capability of mounting attacks against public officials and figures"
  35. only sworn law enforcement personnel can establish reasonable suspicion,  True or false?
  36. Reasonable suspicion is the same as :
    a. probable cause
    b.  to be  beyond a reasonable doubt
    c.  evidence
    d. all the above
    e. none of the above
    e. none of the above
  37. what is reasonable suspicion based upon?
  38. what is a definition of an intelligence failure?
    any misunderstanding of the situation that leads an agency to take actions that are inappropriate and counterproductive to its own interests and that of the community or jurisdiction it serves
  39. in the evaluation step of the analytical process there are four parts,  name them
    reliability, accuracy, timeliness and relevancy
  40. what are the three types of analysis?
    • 1. strategic
    • 2. tactical
    • 3. operational
  41. What is an aspect of strategic intelligence?
    assessing criminal groups/organizations propensity/potential for violence, economic growth/expansion, recruiting, mobility and corruption
  42. tactical intelligence reports
    the police executive,  investigative and intelligence targeting, counterintelligence and there many other examples
  43. Operational analysis helps with what?
    operational analysis supports major criminal investigations, case preparation and case presentation
  44. what is an example of a competency that an analytical supervisor must possess?
    the analytical supervisor must understand intelligence analysis ( organization, activity, end product) to be credible and successful.
  45. True or false,  to maximize the value of the intelligence  process there must be a commitment beyond making cases.
  46. when intelligence Is perceived as a research effort, as opposed to an effort to enforcement adjunct, is generally offered low status and receives little recognition from administrators,  is a statement  true?  or false?
  47. understanding the criminal environment requires the collection of which  critical information
    • 1. methods of territorial allocation
    • 2. financial flows
    • 3. allegiances and loyalties within criminal networks
  48. true or false, intelligence is a management tool?
  49. Collectively, collection and analysis plans identify information requirements, focus and direction  collection resources and directs production and analysis.  True? Or false?
  50. employing a collection plan eliminates what?
    • 1. collectors predilections
    • 2. inefficient utilization of resources
    • 3. non-direction
  51. True or false?  To establish a well-defined collection effort, the analytical function must guide the data collection
  52. what does strategic intelligence provide law enforcement organizations?
    it provides them with an overview of  criminal capabilities, trends, and intentions  in order to allow for the formation of organizational policies and plans to combat criminal activity
  53. true or false?  intelligence is not simply an amalgam  of collected information but rather its interpretation
  54. what essential to the intelligence process?
  55. true or false?  Strategic intelligence focuses on the short-term aims of agencies, organizations and governments
  56. strategic intelligence and analysis focuses on being able to creatively think one's way through issues at a micro level,  true or false?
  57. What is Troy and Fitzgibbon's definition of intelligence?
    knowledge of the enemy
  58. as an " elegant word",  intelligence " meant knowledge"  of what?
    events,  knowledge communicated by others,  knowledge obtained from another
  59. What business organization led the way for intelligence organizations in the 1800s in this country, by gathering, production and assimilating the news?
    newspaper companies
  60. "Intelligence"  achieved its greatest prominence in 1947 when the US openly established a national intelligence service entitled:
    Central Intelligence Agency
  61. true  or false ? the term "intelligence"  carry several meanings
  62. the term "intelligence"  can mean:
    • 1. organization
    • 2. information collected
    • 3. the fruit of spying (means to an end)
    • 4.  the fruit of spying (the end)
  63. true or false?  intelligence as an activity is the pursuit of a " certain kind of knowledge"
  64. true or false,  intelligence as a phenomenon is the resultant knowledge
  65. true or false intelligence is useful knowledge in decision-making
  66. true or false , intelligence is useful knowledge and  deciding a course of action
  67. according to Troy, Sherman Kent separated intelligence three major components name them
    • 1.  intelligence as activity
    • 2. intelligence as an product
    • 3.  intelligence is an entity-  a unit - organization
  68. list the five harms discussed by Michael D. Maltz
    • 1. community
    • 2. societal
    • 3. physical
    • 4. economic
    • 5. psychological
  69. Maltz identifies a number of characteristics associated with organized crime.  What are some characteristics.
    corruption, structure, sophistication, multiple enterprises
  70. Don McDowell's work focuses on strategic intelligence and analysis. Among his many points are the "analysts responsibilities."   which of the following are key responsibilities and analyst must bear as part and parcel of professionalism?
    • 1. selling ideas and concepts
    • 2. maintaining intellectual rigor
    • 3. developing understanding of  conceptual models
  71. true or false? the conceptual model Is the mental image a strategic  analyst develops about a phenomenon that explains it in terms such as what  it is, how it works, who was involved, and why it exists
  72. what our strategic indicators?
    these are single clues, or sets of them, that point to a specific event or phenomenon; they contain two values; one which points to past events and another that points to signals or clues to look for, relative to events likely to occur
  73. Law enforcement strategic intelligence provides managers and executives with insight and understanding into what?
    • 1.  likely changes to policies, strategies, programs and legislation
    • 2. threats to public safety and order
    • 3. changes in crime environment
  74. true or false?  Evidence is essential to developing intelligence
  75. what is the shelf life of strategic intelligence?
    12 – 18 months
  76. what is an estimate?
    Is a type of inference, a theory or a tentative assumption
  77. what is a  prediction?
    is a type of inference, a forecast,  a statement of declaring an event in advance
  78. true or false,  Intelligence requirements may be stated in the form of the question and as an imperative ?
  79. list the " outside the box"  issues they are instructor believes deserved to be subject to the intelligence process
    1.  organized criminality (organized crime)

    2. CDS (controlled dangerous substances) (1. manufactured, 2. distributional)

    3.  gangs ( juvenile, adult, international)

    4.  terrorism (foreign, domestic)

    5.  corruption ( political, official)

    6.  money–laundering
  80. true or false , the distinguishing feature of an   inductive argument  is that its conclusion goes beyond the premise.
  81. name some reasons inferences are developed
    • 1.  data is often fragmented
    • 2.  data is not readily available
    • 3.  data is not stated in exact terms
    • 4.  there may be information gaps
  82. True or false,  Deductive reasoning supports intelligence whereas inductive reasoning supports criminal investigations
  83. What does this indicator analysis involve?
    this type of analysis involves the compilation, review and analysis of activities which occurred around particular events to develop a model of occurrences, to predict the presence of the criminal activity or potential event
  84. true or false,  strategic intelligence analysis can be considered a specific form of research that addresses any issue at the level of breadth  and detail necessary to describe threats, risks, and opportunities in a way that helps determine programs and policies
  85. true or false,  intelligence analysis and production is absolutely dependent upon the nature, quality, and quantity of evidence collected in response to the developed set of intelligence requirements in the completion-planning phase of the process.
  86. true or false,  The value of strategic intelligence is that it is able to go beyond what tactical intelligence can see, simply by standing back and taking a longer and broader snapshot of what is and what has been, and, by doing so forecasting what might be
  87. risk-taking, speculation encourage our special challenges for the strategic analyst, true or false?
  88. What is reason? (Five examples)
    • 1.(Noun) basis or cause, as for some belief,
    • action, fact or event.

    • 2.A statement present in justification or
    • explanation of a belief or action

    3.sound judgment; good sense.

    4.Logic. The presence of an argument

    • 5.(verb) to form conclusions, judgments, or
    • inferences from facts, premises
  89. Developing intelligence information implies
    • taking raw data or information collected and
    • placing it into a context that goes beyond the face value of the collected
    • information
  90. the raw information/data they be categorized as
    _____,________,_________, or ________



  91. what is an inference?
    • An inference is a statement or series of statements, paragraphs, that go beyond and the facts, opinions, arguments and premises by
    • i.g. data, designed to develop specific and accurate knowledge is concentrating
    • on the past, present, future.
  92. four types of inferences?



  93. what is a hypothesis?
    • It is a theory, or tentative assumption. A
    • hypothesis has to be tested related to what is being true or false.
  94. What is a conclusion ?
    • This is the result of two or more facts or
    • propositions
  95. what is a prediction?
    • This is a forecast; a statement clearing an
    • event in advance.
  96. What is an estimate?
    • This is an appraisal; a tentative judgment or an
    • approximate value, worth or significance
  97. what are the two examples of the way inferences are developed?
    Inductively and deductively
  98. what is inductive thinking/reasoning
    • This is taking specific information and making a
    • general statement (making a mountain out of a mole hill)
  99. what is deductive thinking/reasoning?
    Taking general information and arriving at a specific statement (identify the perpetrator of a crime)

    • example: all FDLE officers where 9 mm Sig Sauers
    • while on duty. John Smith wears a 9 mm Sig Sauer went on duty
  100. what are the differences between two?

    • 1.Inferences that go beyond the raw data hence
    • there is opportunity for discovery and production.

    • 2.Risk: if the data are true, the inference may or
    • may not be true.

    3.Requires a probability statement.

    4.Specific to a general statement.

    5.Support criminal intelligence development.


    • 1.Inference that does not go beyond the raw data
    • and cannot arrive at something new

    • 2.risk: if the raw data are true, the inference
    • must be true.

    3.Does not require a probability assessment.

    4.General to specific statement.

    • 5.Supports criminal investigations (proof beyond a
    • reasonable doubt)
  101. what should you do when the building inference? (Seven parts)
    1.Use applicable and relevant information.

    • 2.Describe, categorize and integrate fragmented
    • information.

    • 3.Evaluate the information for accuracy and
    • timeliness (goes to the issue of relevancy).

    4.Developed premises (statements of meaning)

    • 5.Formulate (alternative) inference(s) -
    • hypothesis, conclusion, production, estimate.

    6.Use a probability statement.

    • 7.Avoid logical fallacies.  Remember, when analyst is involved in
    • practical or strategic intelligence analysis, s/he uses inductive reasoning for
    • the most part. On other hand, for operational analysis, the analyst may start
    • thinking inductively, but think more deductively as investigation progresses.
  102. when disseminating an inference, the tent to
    communicate with the basic interrogatives?
    Who, what, where, when, why and how
  103. what is a probability assessment ?
    • A probability assessment implies a degree of
    • certainty in that an event occurred, is occurring (or that conditions exist), or will occur.  It also implies confidence in the information relative to the hypothesis, conclusion, production or the estimate that is being presented
  104. what are the sources of a probability
    1.Relative frequency of past events

    2.theoretical estimation

    3.subjective estimation
  105. what is the relative frequency of past events?
    • This type of data is represented by team sports win – loss
    • records, batting averages, pass completions, surveillance data, toll data, and
    • financial data.  For example how many
    • times was a “bad actor” observed at specific locations, by date, time of day
    • and duration? We are interested in the patterns of behavior. This facilitates
    • pattern analysis assists in recognizing trends and is used as a basis in making
    • predictions (once is happenstance; twice is coincidence; thrice is the
    • beginning of a trend.)
  106. what is a theoretical estimation?
    • This is akin to a rolling the dice and hoping
    • for a specific outcome; card counting; producing burglaries, robberies and
    • rapes for example based upon the potential targets in a given area, employee
    • temporal data, joint and conditional probability. This is useful in criminal
    • analysis.
  107. what is subjective estimation?
    • First, important understand, this does not involve patterns,
    • event frequency data or mathematical formula. Subjective estimation is based on
    • facts, experience and knowledge (expertise, knowing actors, the environment,
    • criminal activity and enterprise structure). 
    • It boils down to integrating information making a sound, rational,
    • mature subject to judgment. Yet, remember you must still think rationally, i.e.
    • inductively or deductively. Being able to employ a subjective judgment
    • confidently implies that one has acquired a body of knowledge about a subject
    • or issue being examined.
  108. what is the “no man's land” of intelligence?
    • This is all about sticking your reputation;
    • sticking your neck out; demonstrating your knowledge about the subject or issue
    • being examined. Assigning a probability (assessment) to statement (hypothesis,
    • conclusion, prediction, estimate, the informed judgment, the single fact or the
    • best guess), what is indicating the level of likelihood that a situation
    • exists, with a situation/event occurred/existed, or will occur/exist in the
    • future. There is risk involved here.
  109. probability scale
    • 1.0 or 100% - event/situation will occur/does not exist (total certainty) 
    • .90 or 90% 
    • .80 or 80% 
    • .70 or 70% - more likely to occur than not 
    • .60 or 60% 
    • .50 or 50% -event/situation may/may not occur/exist 
    • .40 or 40% 
    • .30 or 30% -less likely to occur then occur/exist 
    • .20 or 20% 
    • .10 or 10% 
    • 0.00 or 0% - event/situation will occur/does not exist (total certainty)
  110. What is network analysis?
    Network analysis is a methodology that allows for the development of associations, linkages, organizations and infrastructure.

     It facilitates data description and data integration; it develops visual inferences.
  111. What is a network?
    A network is an inter–connected or inter-related chain, group or system.

     Two entities do not constitute a network. It requires three entities minimally.
  112. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  113. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  114. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  115. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  116. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  117. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  118. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  119. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
    deriving meaning
  120. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  121. What are the elements of analysis? (10 parts)
  122. What are elements of a network?
    • 1.Entity
    • 2.Relationships
    • 3. direction
    • 4. strength
  123. Define the element of relationship with regard to network structure
    relationships are structured behavioral properties of the network based upon psychology, politics, human behavior, communication's and organizational behavior.
  124. Define the element of direction with regard to network structure
    direction: root; Winer course on which something moves or received to move, or along which something is pointing or facing; a channel; course of action; trend. One way, mutual or multiple.
  125. Define the element of strength with regard to network structure
    strength: a subjective estimate regarding to the quality or state of relationship; is it enduring? Are there witnesses? Stability versus instability. These estimates range from 0 to 100, yet it is categorized as strong, moderate, weak. Strong (80-100), moderate (50-79), weak (0-49)
  126. what are examples of networks?
    interstate highway systems, US postal system, telephone systems, Internet, television affiliates,

    organizations, e.g.  terrorists, Boy Scouts, AMA, criminals,  

    personal/social, e.g.  family ( nuclear and extended), professional, colleagues, friends, criminal.

     Electrical utilities.
  127. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    1. Manage information
  128. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    2. develop intelligent information
  129. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    3. facilitates decision-making
  130. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    4. development  networks (models)
  131. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    5. targeting
  132. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    6. recognizing information gaps
  133. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    7. facilitate case preparation and presentation
  134. What are the purposes of network analysis? ( Eight purposes)
    8. post a valuation
  135. What are types of analysis?
    1.Strategic: supports policy and planning

    2.  tactical: supports responses to immediate objectives, events and circumstances.
  136. What does the network represent? What does it mean?
    Collect data/information

    •  building blocks of meaning
    •  visual inferences
  137. where the four inferences? ( Types of meaning)
    • 1. hypothesis
    • 2. conclusion
    • 3.  prediction
    • 4. estimate
  138. how do we develop  meaning?
    collect and use only up applicable and relevant information

     described, categorize and integrate fragmented information

    •  evaluate information for accuracy and timeliness
    • formulate alternative inferences – hypothesis, conclusions, predictions, and estimates

     use a probability assessment (p. %)
  139. what is deductive reasoning? What is inductive reasoning?
    Deductive reasoning – from the general to specific

     inductive reasoning – from specific to the general
  140. what are some aspects of a probability assessment?
    subjective estimation

     relative frequency

     theoretical estimation

     probability scale
  141. with regard to a statement, we use context, how do we put things in context? ( Interrogatives)
    • who?
    •  What?
    •  When?
    •  Why?
    •  How?
  142. What are the types of networks? ( refer to  photo album for charts/diagram)



    flow (commodities and money)

    activity/event (time series)
  143. What are important aspects of network development? (Refer to time series analysis slide)
    • 1. Collect and use relevant information from all sources
    • 2. manage information – manually or computerize
    • 3. develop an association matrix or Association database
    • 4. symbology 
    • 5. development works as data is collected and evaluated; identify directionality
    • 6. record meetings ( hypotheses, and conclusions, predictions, estimates)
    • 7. continue to develop notes until finalized
    • 8. finalize report/briefing
  144. what are the elements of time series analysis?
    • 1. date/time data
    • 2. event data
    • 3. entities
    • 4. location data
    • 5. directionality
  145. why is time series development important? What are the reasons? ( Refer to network conventions slides, slides total)
    – collect relevant event – related information from all sources in attempt to place into a temporal context at the very least

     – manage information – manually or computerize

    - symbiology

    - developed time series chart as soon as enough data is collected

     – record inferences ( hypotheses, conclusions, productions, estimates)

     – continue to develop analysis until finalized

     - finalize reporting/briefing
  146. what is telephone record analysis?( Refer refer to telephone record analysis slide)
    this technique seeks to identify and link entities, establish relationships, and identify communication patterns with pattern deviations. This approach also develops hereto for unknown or suspected networks, may confirm networks and may refute suspected networks.
  147. What are the reasons for telephone record development?
    – Identify the subscriber of the facility or principal operator

     – the subject at issue have access to additional facilities?

     – ascertain work/lifestyle, in the context of 24/7, of all entities

     – does the entity at issue have access to telephone credit cards?
  148. What is the methodology behind telephone record analysis? ( Part one)( refer to final three slides – telephone analysis – frequency chart by day of week –  frequency chart by time)
    • – Collect all relevant telephone/credit card/cell phone  billing data
    • – manage information – manually or computerize

    – symbology

    – be concerned with the following elements – date of the call, time of the call, the number called, location of the number called, time of call, duration of the call, and it collect or third-party call, number and location the call was made from

     – first review all billing data for collect, third-party and other uncharacteristic calls

     – compare dates and times of calls to subjects workday/ lifestyle

     - identify calls outside normal work hours, lunch, and break times (workday)
  149. What is the methodology behind telephone record analysis? ( Part two)
    –know who has access to faculty(ies) 24/7 ( lifestyle)

     – identify obvious patterns,e.g. number called, time of day, they week, duration of the call.  Are there sequenced calls?

     – using frequency charts, by number called, by day, by time, by duration, by collect and third-party calls

     – identify  primary numbers ( criteria: all collect and third-party calls or primary numbers. Why?)

     – Develop network and/or time series chart(s)  as soon as enough data is collected

     – record meeting(s) ( hypotheses, conclusions, productions, estimates)

     – continue to develop analysis until finalized

     finalized report/briefing

Card Set Information

Law enforcement intelligence analysis final examination prep, card set 1
2013-10-28 02:45:40
Law enforcement intelligence analysis final examination prep card set

Law enforcement intelligence analysis final examination prep, card set 1
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