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GODDESS (OR VENUS) OF WILLENDORF,
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE: She represents fertility and is small enough for a nomadic people to carry her as they migrate. She was used in ritual of sympathetic magic to ensure fertility for the group and thus their survival.
- LASCAUX CAVE PAINTINGS
- FRANCE, PALEOLITHIC
- SIGNIFICANCE: Paleolithic hunting cultures used these paintings in rituals enacted to ensure a successful hunt and thus, the survival of the group.
KRITIOS BOYEARLY CLASSICAL GREEK.
Changes from Archaic period include: Natural body positioning, CONTRAPOSTO (weight not evenly distributed) Muscles not as schematized Archaic smile gone, new solemn, contemplative face Beginning of idealization of human form
What is one of the main differences between Eastern versus Western cultural or religious beliefs?
Eastern cultures/religions focus less on the idea of the “inextinguishable self”They tend to look on the universe as interconnected
Explain at least 2 main differences between the Qin (Ch’in) and Han Dynasties
Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty: Legalistic system, thought humans were basically evil, need harsh authority & punishment. Very militaristic, period lasted 15 yrs.Han Dynasty: Humans basically good,need guidance & nurture, rediscovery of Confucian teachings and literature, humanistic culture lasted 400 years
How does the myth of Isis & Osiris reflect a major cultural value of its society? Which value and which society would that be?
Isis finding and putting together Osiris’ body symbolizes the Egyptian value of Resurrection
Explain the term “sympathetic magic” and give an example of ways in which ancient cultures used it.
A symbolic object that represents something real, used in ritual to influence the outcome of a real event
What is the most fundamental reason for people to create myth?
To explain the universe and their place in it.
Name the basic difference between the cultural outlook of ancient Egypt and that of ancient Mesopotamia. Explain 2 factors that influenced these different outlooks
Egypt had a positive outlook, saw their gods as benevolent Mesopotamia had a negative outlook and saw their gods as punitive These outlooks were caused by the climates of each area and their vulnerability to invasion. This relates back to the connection between the natural elements and the gods as well as the degree of security and wealth provided by the different climates/environments
Name this artifact, the cultural period from which it came and its purpose:
- Goddess of Willendorf
- -Paleolithic period
Sympathetic magic item used to aid in fertility rituals
Name this artwork, where it is, what culture or era it is from and its purpose to the people who created it.
- Cave art at Lascaux
Used as part of sympathetic magic in ritual to bring good luck to hunters
In its belief in the afterlife and in the power of dead to influence the lives of the living, ancient China is similar to what other ancient culture?
Egypt, where ancestors were venerated and kept in splendor post-mortem to assure their help in the lives of their descendants
Name 3 differences between the Paleo-and Neolithic cultures:
Paleolithic:Nomadic Hunters No monumental art No written language
Neolithic:Settled,Farmers Monumental art Written language
- From left to right:Archaic –stylized, non-realistic Early Classical
- –more realism Classical
- –realism to idealization Hellenistic
- –less restrained, more dynamic & emotional This reflects the shift in thought to man as center of universe, idealized, balanced. Also shows progression
Why does Antigone choose to bury her brother even though she knows the price she will pay?
She feels that the laws of the gods (burying the dead) are higher than the law of the state (Creon’s edict forbidding burial).
What topics were being addressed in the new religion of Classical Greece that the civic gods had not addressed previously?
Questions about morality beauty justice and the human soul
Hallmarks of Classical Greek art include
In Greek drama, the hero often comes to ruin because of what? Name and give an example
- A fatal flaw
- excessive pride (example)
Why did Socrates refuse to flee when he was accused of subversion and sentenced to death?
He taught all his life about right moral conduct. For him this included obedience to the community even if he disagreed with its law. He felt it would be hypocritical to leave rather than face his punishment.
Name a basic belief of Aristotle’s that could be viewed as being in direct conflict with one of Plato’s
Aristotle believed in direct observation as a means to understanding the universe; Plato believed sensory experience to be a shadow copy of reality
Name the three greatest thinkers of Classical Greece and one contribution of each.
Socrates: Question everything, follow ideas where they lead Plato: True or Ideal Forms, Allegory of the CaveAristotle: Golden Mean, avoid excess, Empirical Evidence based on observationExplain, generally, how the Greek thinkers we studied changed mans’ outlook on the universe and his place in it, as compared to previous methods:Shift from faith-to reason-based analysis of the universe:Direct observation (Aristotle) Arguing and analyzing assumptions (Socrates) Ideal Forms that humans should try to emulate in all they do/make (Plato
Define “contraposto” and give an example of it in art we have studied.
The naturalistic stance in sculpture that results in an “s” curve in the human form
Examples: Riace Warrior Doryphoros Discobolus
Name this sculpture, the cultural period from which it came and list two distinctions that separate it from later work from the same culture.
Kritios Boy Archaic Greek Patterned hair, tight smile, rigid pose w/weight centered and less naturalistic depiction of human form.
Name this sculpture, its cultural period and describe its cultural significance.
Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer) Classical Greece Pinnacle of Greek classical sculpture, highly idealized form, use of contrapostostance
Name this sculpture, the cultural period it comes from and name one quality that connects it to that culture.
Laocoon and His Sons Hellenistic Greece
Increased drama, emotion and dynamic sense of movement
Name, explain and give an example of the Classical Ideal
Man as measure of all things, center of the universeCan determine own destiny based on intellectual abilityAristotle’s idea of different levels of achievement: plant, beast, divineBalance and order in universe directly related to human action
Name this structure, the culture that created it and give one quality that connects it to that culture.
The Parthenon Classical Greece Symmetry and Proportion
Name, explain and give an example of the Classical Ideal
Man as measure of all things, center of the universe Can determine own destiny based on intellectual ability Aristotle’s idea of different levels of achievement: plant, beast, divine Balance and order in universe directly related to human action
NIKE OF SAMOTHRACEHELLENISTIC, GREEK
Hellenistic (post-Classical) more dynamic than restrained style of Classical era– Increased drama, emotion– Sense of movement
THREE GODDESSES (PEDIMENT, PARTHENON)CLASSICAL GREEK
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE: The softly modeled figures and flowing drapery serve as counterpoint to the angularity of the Parthenon’s architecture, providing the Greek ideal of balance within the structure. The subject matter shows the Greeks’ reverence for their goddesses.
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE: This temple, dedicated to Athena and prominently placed on top of the Acropolis in Athens, reflects the Classical Humanism of the period. Greek ideals of symmetry and proportion were used to create a civic and spiritual center that Greek thinkers felt would encourage wisdom and moral justice in its citizenry.
GREECE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE: This sculpture,acknowledged as the pinnacle of Classical Greek sculpture, reflects the Greek ideal of man as the measure of all things. It shows the Classical tenets of proportion, balance,and the idealized realism in depicting the human form.
- STELE OF HAMMURABI,BABYLONIAN (Mesopotamia),
SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first known written body of law. Mesopotamian ruler Hammurabi codified law, making it less open to interpretation (compared to oral tradition). This stele addresses a vast body of civic law, giving us an “index to life” in ancient Mesopotamia.
- RECONSTRUCTION OF ZIGGURAT,
- MESOPOTAMIA, Neolithic period.
SIGNIFICANCE: These shrine/temples did not function, like the Egyptian pyramids did, astombs. This reflects the Mesopotamian disregard for any concept of the afterlife. They were, however, symbolic of a sacred mountain that linked heaven to earth and served as spiritual center of the city.