Chapter 6 - Slides 25-63

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Chapter 6 - Slides 25-63
2013-10-27 23:49:13
Chapter Bones Skeletal Tisuue

Bones and Skeletal Tissue
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  1. In infants what tissue is found in the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone.
    Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow)
  2. In adults, what tissue is found in the diploe (spongy) of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus?
    Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow)
  3. What is the structural unit of compact bone?
    Haversian System
  4. In the compact bone, what is the weight-bearing, column-like matrix tube composed mainly of collagen?
  5. IN the compact bone, what is the central channel containing blood vessels and nerves?
    Haversian or central canal
  6. In the compact bone, what is the channels lying at the right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the peristeum to that of the Haversian canal?
    Volkmann's canals
  7. In a compact bone what is the mature bone cells called?
  8. In the compact bone, what are the small cavities in the bone that contain osteocytes?
  9. In the compact bone, what are the hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal?
  10. What is the organic bone-forming cell called?
  11. What are organic, mature bone cells?
  12. What are the organic, large cells that resorb or breakdown bone matrix?
  13. What are the organic, unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen?
  14. What is the in organic chemical composition of bone?
    Hydroxyapatities or mineral salt
  15. Hydroxyapatites is what percent of bone by mass?
  16. Hydroxyapatites or mineral salt is mainly what?
    Calcium Phosphates
  17. What inorganic chemical composition is responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression?
  18. What is the process of bone tissue formation?
    Osteogenesis and Ossification
  19. What is the bone development called that cause the formation of the bony skeleton in embryos?
    Osteogenesis and Ossification
  20. What is the bone development called that cause bone growth until early adulthood?
    Osteogenesis and Ossification
  21. What is the bone development that causes bone thickness, remodeling, and repair?
    Osteogenesis and Ossification
  22. What week does the formation of bony skeleton of embroyo begin?
    week 8
  23. What type of ossification do bone develop from a fibrous membrane?
  24. What type of ossification do bones form by replacing hyaline cartilage?
  25. Formation of most of the flat bones of the skull and the clavicle are done through which ossification formation?
  26. In intramembranous ossification, fibrous connective tissue membranes are formed by what?
    mesenchymal cells
  27. Steps of Intramembranous Ossification
    • 1. ossification center appears.
    • 2. Bone matrix is secreted
    • 3. Woven bone and periosteum form
    • 4. Bone collar forms, red marrow appears
    • 5. Skull and clavicles
  28. Which ossification begins in the second month of development?
    Endochondral Ossification
  29. Which ossification uses hyaline cartilage "bones" as models for bone construction?
    Endochondral Ossification
  30. Which ossification requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification?
    Endochondral Ossification
  31. During infancy and childhood, epiphyseal plate activity is stimulated by what?
    Growth Hormone
  32. During puberty what initially promotes adolescent growth spurts?
    testosterone and estrogens
  33. During puberty, what causes masculinization and feminization of specific parts of the skeleton?
    testosterone and estrogens
  34. During puberty, what later induces epiphyseal plate closure, ending longitudinal bone growth?
    testosterone and estrogen
  35. In Bone remodeling, adjacent osteoblasts and osteoclasts deposit and resorb one at periosteal and endosteal surfaces. What is this called?
    Remodeling units
  36. This occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed.
    Bone deposition
  37. This requires a diet rich in protein, vitamins C, D, and A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese.
    Bone Deposition
  38. In bone deposition this is essential for mineralization of bone.
    Alkaline phosphate
  39. 5 reasons Calcium is necessary in the body?
    • *Transmission of nerve impulses
    • *Muscle contraction
    • *Blood Coagulation
    • *Secretion by glands and nerve cells
    • *Cell Division
  40. What mechanism maintains calcium homeostasis in the blood in Remodeling?
  41.         &         forces acting on the skeleton regulate bone remodeling?
    Mechanical & gravitational
  42. Stages of healing a bone fracture.
    • 1. hematoma forms
    • 2. Fibrocartilaginous Callus forms
    • 3. Bony Callus forms
    • 4. Bone remodeling occurs
  43. What stage of bone fracture does torn blood vessels hemorrhage?
    Hematoma formation
  44. What stage of bone fracture does a mass of clotted blod (hematoma) form at the fracture site?
    Hematoma formation
  45. At what stage in a bone fracture does the site become swollen, painful, and inflamed?
    Hematoma formation
  46. At what stage in a fracture does granulation tissue (soft callus) form a few days after the fracture?
    Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
  47. At what stage in a bone fracture does capillaries grow into the tissue and phagocytic cells begin cleaning debris?
    Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
  48. The fibrocartilaginous callus forms when:

          &          migrate to the fracture and begin restricting the bone.
    osteoblasts and fibroblasts
  49. The fibrocartilaginous callus forms when:

    Fibroblasts secrete             fibers that connect broken bone ends.
  50. The fibrocartilaginous callus forms when:

    Osteoblast begin forming         bone?
    Spongy bone
  51. The fibrocartilaginous callus forms when:

    Osteoblasts furthest from capillaries secrete an externally bulging           matrix that later calcifies.
  52. New bone trabeculae appears in the fibrocatilaginous callus in what stage of the bone fracture?
    Bony callus formation
  53. Fibrocartilaginous callus converts into a bony (hard) callus in what stage of the healing process?
    Bony callus formation
  54. IN the bony callus formation stage in bone healing, bone callus begins     to     weeks after injury, and continues until firm union is formed      to      months later. 
    • 3-4 weeks
    • 2-3 months
  55. In what stage of the bone healing is excess material on the bone shaft exterior and in the medullary canal removed?
    Bone remodeling
  56. In what stage of bone healing is compact bone laid down to reconstruct shaft walls?
    Bone remodeling
  57. What are bones of children that are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bones?
  58. What causes bowed legs and deformaties of the pelvis, skull, and rib cage?
  59. The cause of this is insufficient calcium diet, or by vitamin D deficiency.
  60. This is a group of diseases in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit.
  61. Treatment for Osteoporosis is:
    • vitamin d and calcium supplements
    • increased weight bearing exercises
    • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    • progesterone cream
    • statins
  62. At what age is most long bones well ossified?
  63. At what age are nearly all bones ossified?