Pharmacology Manual: General Info

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kmariie
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Pharmacology Manual: General Info
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2013-10-26 15:46:28
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Pharmacology Manual: General Info
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  1. ADENOSINE: Classification
    antidysrhythmic agent
  2. ADENOSINE: Actions
    • 1. Depresses automaticity in the SA node & Purkinje fibers
    • 2. Depresses AV node conduction
  3. ALBUTEROL SULFATE: Other Name(s)
    (Proventil, Ventolin)
  4. ALBUTEROL SULFATE: Classification
    bronchodilator
  5. ALBUTEROL SULFATE: Actions
    • 1. Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by stimulatin beta2 receptors resulting in bronchodilation
    • 2. Reduces airway resistance by bronchodilation
  6. AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Cordarone, Pacerone)
  7. AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDE: Classification
    antidysrhythmic agent, Class III
  8. AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDE: Actions
    • 1. Prolongs duration of the action potential and effective refractory period
    • 2. Slows the sinus rate through calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade
    • 3. Slows conduction through the AV node
    • 4. Widens the QRS complex and prolongs the QT interval
    • 5. Vasodilation action can decrease cardiac workload
  9. AMYL NITRITE: Classification
    cyanide antidote
  10. AMYL NITRITE: Actions
    1. Converts hemoglobin to metheglobin, which binds to the cyanide to assist cyanide elimination
  11. ASPIRIN: Other Name(s)
    (Acetylsalicylic acid=ASA)
  12. ASPIRIN: Classification
    anticoagulant
  13. ASPIRIN: Actions
    • 1. Inhibits the aggregation (clumping) of platelets
    • 2. Prolongs bleeding time
  14. ATROPINE SULFATE: Classification
    parasympathetic blocker/ anticholinergic/ vagolytic
  15. ATROPINE SULFATE: Actions
    • 1.Inhibits parasympathetic stimulation by blocking acetylcholine receptors
    • 2. Decreases vagal tone resulting in increased heart rate and AV conduction
    • 3. Dilates bronchioles and decreases respiratory tract secretions
    • 4. Decreases gastrointestinal secretions
  16. CALCIUM CHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (CaCl2)
  17. CALCIUM CHLORIDE: Classification
    inotropic agent (electrolyte)
  18. CALCIUM CHLORIDE: Actions
    • 1. Increases myocardial contractility
    • 2. Actively competes with potassium at the heart and neuromuscular receptor sites
    • 3. Restores myocardial conduction in presence of hyperkalemia
  19. CHARCOAL: Other Name(s)
    (Acta-Char, Insta-Char, CharcoAid, Actidose, Liqui-char)
  20. CHARCOAL: Classification
    chemical absorbent
  21. CHARCOAL: Actions
    1. Inhibits gastrointestinal absorption of drugs and chemicals
  22. DEXTROSE ORAL PREPARATIONS: Other Name(s)
    (Glucose paste/ Glucose gel/ Glucose solution)
  23. DEXTROSE ORAL PREPARATIONS: Classification
    hyperglycemic agent
  24. DEXTROSE ORAL PREPARATIONS: Actions
    1. Provides an oral source of glucose rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
  25. DEXTROSE 5% IV SOLUTION: Other Name(s)
    (D5W)
  26. DEXTROSE 5% IV SOLUTION: Classification
    hypotonic solution (crystalloid)
  27. DEXTROSE 5% IV SOLUTION: Actions
    • 1. Provides small amounts of glucose, which is rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
    • 2. Supplies body water
  28. DEXTROSE 50% IN WATER: Other Name(s)
    (D50W)
  29. DEXTROSE 50% IN WATER: Classification
    hyperglycemic agent (crystalloid)
  30. DEXTROSE 50% IN WATER: Actions
    1. Provides an immediate source of glucose, which is rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
  31. DIAZEPAM: Other Name(s)
    (Valium)
  32. DIAZEPAM: Classification
    anticonvulsant/ sedative/ muscle relaxant
  33. DIAZEPAM: Actions
    • 1. Anticonvulsant
    • 2. Depresses central, peripheral & autonomic nervous systems
    • 3. Depresses patient recall
  34. DIPHENHYDRAMINE: Other Name(s)
    (Benadryl)
  35. DIPHENHYDRAMINE: Classification
    antihistamine
  36. DIPHENHYDRAMINE: Actions
    • 1. Competes with histamine at receptor sites
    • 2. Reverses muscle spasm associated with dystonic reactions
  37. DOPAMINE: Other Name(s)
    (Intropin)
  38. DOPAMINE: Classification
    sympathomimetic agent (catecholamine)
  39. DOPAMINE: Low Dose
    • Low Dose= 1-4 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Dilates renal and mesenteric arteries by stimulating dopaminergic receptors
    • 2. May decrease BP due to vasodilation
  40. DOPAMINE: Moderate Dose
    • Moderate Dose= 5-10 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Increases inotropy without increasing chronotropy
    • 2. Increases BP by stimulating beta1 receptors
  41. DOPAMINE: High Dose
    • High Dose= >10-20 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Causes vasoconstriction by stimulating alpha receptors
    • 2. Increases inotropy & chronotropy by stimulating beta1 receptors
    • 3. Increases BP by stimulating alpha & beta1 receptors
  42. EPINEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Adrenalin)
  43. EPINEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Classification
    sympathomimetic agent (catecholamine)
  44. EPINEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Actions
    • 1. Increases CO due to increased inotropy, chronotropy, and AV conduction (dromotropy) (beta1 effect)
    • 2. Increases systolic BP due to increased CO and vasoconstriction (beta1, alpha effect)
    • 3. Increases coronary perfusion during CPR by increasing aortic diastolic pressure (alpha effect)
    • 4. Prevents hypotension and loss of intravascular fluid in anaphylactic reactions by counteracting vasodilation and decreasing vascular permeability (alpha effect)
    • 5. Relaxes smooth muscles of the respiratory tract (beta2 effect)
  45. FUROSEMIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Lasix)
  46. FUROSEMIDE: Classification
    diuretic
  47. FUROSEMIDE: Actions
    • 1. Increases urinary output inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium chloride in renal tubules
    • 2. Causes venous pooling due to vasodilation
  48. GLUCAGON: Classification
    hyperglycemic agent
  49. GLUCAGON: Actions
    • 1. Elevates blood glucose by converting liver glycogen into glucose
    • 2. Positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart
    • 3. Relaxes smooth muscle
  50. LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Xylocaine)
  51. LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Classification
    antidysrhythmic agent, Class IB
  52. LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Actions
    • 1. Supresses ventricular dysrhythmias by: stabilizing the myocardial cell membrane, shortening the refractory period, suppression of automaticity of ectopic focuses
    • 2. Prolongs the refractory period in ischemic tissue
  53. MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Versed, Hypnovel)
  54. MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE: Classification
    anticonvulsant/ hypnotic/ sedative
  55. MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE: Actions
    • 1. Depresses the CNS
    • 2. Relaxes skeletal muscles
    • 3. Decreases patient recall
  56. MORPHINE SULFATE: Classification
    narcotic analgesic
  57. MORPHINE SULFATE: Actions
    • 1. Alters pain perception and produces euphoria
    • 2. Depresses the CNS by interacting with opiate receptors in the brain
    • 3. Decreases myocardial oxygen demand by:
    • -decreasing preload by causing venous pooling due to peripheral vasodilation resulting in decreased venous return
    • -decreasing afterload by causing peripheral vasodilation resulting in decreased systemic vascular resistance
  58. NALOXONE: Other Name(s)
    (Narcan)
  59. NALOXONE: Classification
    narcotic antagonist
  60. NALOXONE: Actions
    1. Reverses the respiratory depression and CNS sedation of narcotics by competing for opiate receptor sites in the brain
  61. NITROGLYCERIN SPRAY: Other Name(s)
    (Nitrolingual)
  62. NITROGLYCERIN SPRAY: Classification
    vasodilator
  63. NITROGLYCERIN SPRAY: Actions
    • 1. Dilates arterial and venous vessels resulting in venous pooling
    • 2. Reduces preload and afterload resulting in decreased myocardial workload and reduced oxygen demand
    • 3. Dilates coronary vessels resulting in increased perfusion of the myocardium
    • 4. Relieves coronary vasospasm
  64. ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (Zofran)
  65. ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE: Classification
    antiemetic
  66. ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE: Actions
    1. Blocks the serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the stomach and small intestines
  67. OXYGEN: Classification
    gas
  68. OXYGEN: Actions
    • 1. Oxidizes glucose to provide energy at the cellular level
    • 2. Essential for normal metabolic function (aerobic metabolism) and energy production for nerves and muscles
  69. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (KCl)
  70. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE: Classification
    electrolyte supplement
  71. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE: Actions
    1. Regulates nerve conduction and muscle contraction, especially cardiac
  72. PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE: Other Name(s)
    (2-PAM Cl, Protopam)
  73. PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE: Classification
    cholinesterase re-activator
  74. PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE: Actions
    1. Blocks the effects of accumulated acetylcholine by breaking the bond between the nerve agent and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
  75. RINGER'S LACTATE IV SOLUTION: Classification
    isotonic solution (crystalloid)
  76. RINGER'S LACTATE IV SOLUTION: Actions
    1. Replaces fluid and electrolytes lost from the intravascular and intracellular spaces
  77. SODIUM BICARBONATE: Other Name(s)
    (Na HCO3)
  78. SODIUM BICARBONATE: Classification
    alkalinizing agent (hydrogen ion buffer)
  79. SODIUM BICARBONATE: Actions
    • 1. Increases blood pH
    • 2. Combines with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid
    • 3. Decreases precipitation of myoglobin in renal tubules in Crush Syndrome
  80. SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IV SOLUTION: Other Name(s)
    (Normal Saline)
  81. SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IV SOLUTION: Classification
    isotonic solution (crystalloid)
  82. SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IV SOLUTION: Actions
    1. Replaces fluid and electrolytes lost from the intravascular and intracellular spaces

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