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how words combine to form sentences
rules which govern how prefixes, suffixes and compounds may combine
- rules that govern how sounds combine
- ex. new words must have familiar phonemes
What is the WADA test used for?
to ascertain language dominance
- surgical separation of the hemispheres
- leads to split brain condition
effects of an isolated R hemisphere
good comprehension, limited production
effects of an isolated L hemisphere
comprehension and production normal (although often "robotic")
filled with content words, syntactically poor, but can recognize and comprehend language
fluent speech, well formed sentences, semantically poor
What is flawed about "aphasia"
all brain damage is unique, much more variety
left hand anomia
patients have no difficultly naming objects behind a screen placed in R hand, but do have difficulty naming objects in L hand
removal of one hemisphere
- joining two separate pieces together
- i.e. bookshelf, Cognitive Psychology etc.
3 aspects to reading
- letter processing
- word recognition
- access to meaning
- we can read words which look different
- we cope with variation in font, color and case
we identify letters in terms of positions in word
are letters processed one at a time or all at a time?
all at a time
when are letters processed letter by letter?
only in cases on brain damage
Is just bottom up or bottom up and top down processing used to recognize letters?
- bottom up and top down
- word information influences recognition of words, knowledge of words should facilitate processing of letters
frequency effects in word recognition
more frequently used words are processed more quickly and accurately than less frequent words
how do other words influence our selection of words from long term memory?
words that are spelled similarly make recognition harder
number of words similar to another word
high neighbor density leads to
more difficulty recalling a word (slower reaction times in lexical decision tests)
theory of word theory
- words are recognized on the basis of information from letters
- interactive activation model
What does the interactive activation model reveal about word recognition?
- letters receive top-down activation from words (word superiority effect)
- similarly spelled words are activated and compete for selection
4 steps of interactive activation model
- 1. basic visual features are activated
- 2. activation spreads to letter nodes
- 3. activation spreads to word nodes
- 4. activation spreads back to letter levels
Is determining meaning bottom up only or bottom up and top down?
- bottom up only (initially)
- meaning is retrieved solely from letter info; all meanings retrieved
definitional theory of word meaning
- words are represented in our minds as in dictionaries
- each word can be recognized as a bundle of basic concepts
prototype theory of meaning
- concepts are held together by "family resemblance structure"
- some items fit the description better than others
quintessential theory of concept
- why objects are the way they are
- ex. a lawn mover couldn't be made out of ice
What is lateralization?
- language is dominated by the left hemisphere
- as proved by the WADA test, commissurotomy and hemispherectomy
Results of Onifer & Swinney experiment?
access to meaning is initially bottom up processing and then it becomes both with more time
How is letter recognition tested?
With letter detection
How does the word superiority effect apply to letter recognition?
Letters are easier to detect in words
Is definitional or prototype theory correct?
Both are incorporated in access to meaning!