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- A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession.
- a term for a southern white in the post-civil war era the supported reconstruction.
- local whites in the South who had resettled there and supported or entered Reconstruction governments; were ex-Whigs seeking to reenter politics; their beliefs accorded with the policies of congressional Reconstruction
- Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there.The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments.
- northerners who were the opponents to the scalawags; were well-educated, middle-class professionals; many were former Union soldiers attracted by the South's climate and cheap land
(1823–78) US politician; known as Boss Tweed. As a New York City official and a state senator 1867–71, he became the leader of Tammany Hall, the executive committee of New York City’s Democratic Party and a ring of political corruption, that swindled the state treasury out of as much as $200 million. Convicted in 1873, he fled to Cuba and then Spain, but was extradited in 1876 and returned to a New York jail, where he died.
Klu Klux Klan
- a hate group in the US that works to protect the rights of white Americans by terrorism, violence, and lynching.
- The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. Forrest. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. Members used disguises, rituals, whippings and lynchings, to terrorize African-Americans and their supporters. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869.
- "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
- Formally abolishing slavery in the United States
- the 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.
- granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
- Although ratified on February 3, 1870, the promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century. Through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests and other means, Southern states were able to effectively disenfranchise African Americans. It would take the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote.
Credit Mobllier scandal
the 1867-1868 scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad
- The effect of the Act was, the day before the second-term inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant, to double the salary of the President (to $50,000) and the salaries of Supreme Court Justices
- In the Salary Grab Act of 1873, Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself
- The public was shocked, leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. The act was later repealed
- it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government.
The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Also, states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Panic of 1873
- caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects; main causes, over-speculation and too much credit
- Transforming the northern economy, the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. Banks closed, farm prices plummeted,steel furnaces stood idle, and one out of four railroads failed. However, once the depression began, demand rose. This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt.
Compromise of 1877
- Immediately after the presidential election of 1876, it became clear that the outcome of the race hinged largely on disputed returns from Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina--the only three states in the South with Reconstruction-era Republican governments still in power. As a bipartisan congressional commission debated over the outcome early in 1877, allies of the Republican Party candidate Rutherford Hayes met in secret with moderate southern Democrats in order to negotiate acceptance of Hayes' election. The Democrats agreed not to block Hayes' victory on the condition that Republicans withdraw all federal troops from the South, thus consolidating Democratic control over the region. As a result of the so-called Compromise of 1877 (or Compromise of 1876), Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina became Democratic once again, effectively marking the end of the Reconstruction era.
- Agreed on :FEDERAL TROOPS LEAVE SOUTH,ONE SOUTHERNER WOULD GET A POST IN HIS CABINET, HAYES WOULD GIVE CONSERVATIVE SOUTHERN DEMOCRATS CONTROL OF PART OF THE LOCAL PATRONAGE, SUPPORT GENERAL SPENDING FOR INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT IN THE SOUTH
Jim Crow Laws
- The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
- laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
Plessy v Ferguson
- Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
- supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilities were equal
Separate but equal
segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilities were equal
Personal liberty laws
Personal Liberty Laws forbade the imprisonment of runaway salves and guaranteed that they would have jury trials (Nine northern states passed this)
William Loyd Garrison
most conspicious and most vilified of the abolitionists, published "The Liberator" in Boston, helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society; favored Northern secession and renounced politics
Anti- Slavery society
- an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings
- An abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists that called for the destruction of slavery, not gradual emancipation or colonization.
Angela and Sarah Grimke
- Abolitionists and suffragettes. The sisters came from South Carolina in a aristocratic family, with an Episcopalian judge who owned slaves father. Both sisters became abolitionists, and after converting to the Quaker faith, they joined Society of Friends. In 1835
- Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in, The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings.
- In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) - objecting to male opposition to their anti-slavery activities.
- Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
- lead a ban of rebels plantation to plantation slaughtering countless whites; eventually caught and hanged; resulted in legal codes against black education, rules, and regulation
- wanted to democratize the South, establish public education, and ensure the rights or free people; strongly promoted free blacks and black suffrage
- the congressional republicans who wanted to destroy the political power of slaveholders and to give African Americans citizenship and the right to vote