The Digestive System

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The Digestive System
2013-10-26 18:42:41
Digestion SOCM Anatomy Physiology

Flash Cards for Chapter 16 of Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Forth Edition, by Martini / Bartholomew
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  1. The inner lining of the digestive tract.
  2. Second Layer of loose connective tissue that is immediately deep to the muscularis mucosae
  3. Band of smooth muscle cells creating the third layer of the digestive tract.
    Muscularis Externa
  4. Inner layer of muscularis externa
    Circular layer
  5. Outer layer of Muscularis Externa
    Longitudinal layer
  6. Six Processes of Digestion
    Ingestion, Mechanical Processing, Digestion, Secretion, Absorption, and Excretion.
  7. Occurs when food enters the digestive tract through the mouth.
  8. The physical manipulation of solid foods, first by the tongue and the teeth and then by swirling and mixing motions of the digestive tract.
    Mechanical Processing
  9. The chemical breakdown of foods into small organic fragments that can be absorbed by the digestive epithelium.
  10. The release of water, acids, enzymes, and buffers by the digestive tract and by the accessory organs.
  11. The movement of small organic molecules, electrolytes, vitamins, and water across the digestive epithelium and into the interstitial fluid of the digestive tract.
  12. The removal of waste products from the body fluids.
  13. Structure that transports materials to the stomach.
  14. Structures that secrete lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down carbohydrates.
    Salivary glands.
  15. Structure that muscularly propels materials into the esophagus.
  16. Structure that facilitates chemical breakdown of materials by acid and enzymes, and mechanical processing through muscular contractions.
  17. Structure that facilitates enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins, and ions.
    Small intestine.
  18. Features that mechanically process, moisten, and mix with salivary secretions.
    Oral cavity, teeth, tongue.
  19. Structure that secretes bile, storage of nutrients, and many other vital functions.
  20. Structure that stores and concentrates bile.
  21. Structure that contains exocrine cells which secrete buffers and digestive enzymes, and endocrine cells which secrete hormones.
  22. Structure with the purpose of dehydration and compaction of undigestible materials in preparation for elimination.
    Large Intestines.
  23. The network of nerve fibers, sensory neurons, and parasympathetic motor neurons in the submucosa.
    Submucosal plexus.
  24. Network of nerves in the Muscularis Externa
    Myentric plexus.
  25. A serous membrane, covers the muscularis externa along most portions of the digestive tract within the peritoneal cavity.
  26. Lines the inner surface of the body wall.
    Parietal peritoneum
  27. Double sheets of serous membrane composed of the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum.
  28. What kind of cells in the smooth muscle of the digestive tract trigger waves of contraction, resulting in rhythmic cycles of activity?
    Pacesetter cells
  29. The movement of material along the digestive tract.
  30. The mechanical mixing of material in the digestive tract.
  31. The mouth opens into the:
    Oral cavity.
  32. Type of epithelium that lines the oral cavity:
    Stratified squamous.
  33. Functions of the oral cavity
    Senses and analyzes material before swallowing; mechanically processes material through the actions of the teeth, tongue, and surfaces of the palate; lubricates material by mixing it with mucus and salivary secretions; begins the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids with salivary enzymes.
  34. Another name for the Oral cavity.
    buccal cavity.
  35. Name for lips
  36. Space between the cheeks and the teeth.
  37. Name for gums
  38. Located on the "roof" of the mouth
    Hard palate and soft palate
  39. Thin fold of mucous membrane that connects the free anterior portion of the tongue
    Lingual Frenulum
  40. 3 primary functions of the tongue:
    Mechanical processing by compression, abrasion, and distortion; Manipulation to assist in chewing and to prepare the material for swallowing; Sensory analysis by touch, temperature and taste receptors.
  41. What are the pair of prominent lateral swelling at the base of the tongue?
    Lingual Tonsils
  42. Salivary gland that lies on the lateral and posterior surface of the mandible
    parotid salivary gland
  43. Salivary glands located beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth.
    Sublingual Salivary glands
  44. Glands on the floor of the mouth along the inner surfaces of the mandible.
    submandibular salivary glands
  45. How much saliva is produced by the salivary glands in a day?
    1.0-1.5 liters/day
  46. What is the purpose of lysosomes in the saliva?
    To control populations of or bacteria.
  47. The parotid gland produces a saliva rich in:
    Salivary amylase