Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

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Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
2013-10-26 17:42:14
pharm week

Show Answers:

  1. what does the RAAS regulate?
    • BP
    • blood volume

    fluid & electrolyte balance
  2. what converts Angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
    angiotensin converting enzyme
  3. effects of angiotensin II

    stimulation of aldosterone release

    --> raise BP

    can act on heart /blood vessels to cause hypertrophy/remodeling (redistribution of mass)
  4. direct and indirect ways of causing vasoconstriction by angiotensin II
    Direct: effects arterioles more than veins -> raises BP

    Indirect: release of E/NE, acts on CNS to increase sympathetic stimulation of blood vessles
  5. action of aldosterone
    • works on DCT of kidney
    • retain sodium -> retains water
    • -> raises blood volume/pressure
  6. what two mechanisms promote renal retention of water?
    constriction of renal vessels -> less GFR

    release of aldosterone
  7. what can stimulate RAAS?
    • blood loss
    • dehydration
    • sodium depletion
  8. What does renin do?
    • catalyzes formation of angiotensin I from angiotensinogen
    • produced in kidneys
  9. What do ACE inhibitors treat?  how?
    • hypertension, heart failure, diabetic nephropathy, myocardial infarction
    • suppress formation of angiotensin II
    • -> dilate blood vessels
    • -> reduce blood volume¬†
    • -> prevent/reverse pathologic changes in heart/vessels
    • also produce bradykinin, promotes vasodilation
  10. are all ACE inhibitors the same?
    produce similar effects, but no single ACE inhibitor is approved to treat all conditions
  11. how do ACE inhibitors help heart failure?
    lower arterial tone -> improve regional blood flow

    reduce cardiac afterload -> increase cardiac output

    venous dilation -> reduce pulmonary congestion/peripheral edema

    dilate blood vessels in kidneys -> increase renal blood flow -> promote excretion of sodium and water

    less blood volume -> less strain on heart
  12. adverse effects of ACE inhibitors
    hypotension (after first dose)



    renal failure