N3: Long Latency Reflexes

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N3: Long Latency Reflexes
2013-11-03 14:25:34

N3: Long Latency Reflexes
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  1. Sherrington & Liddel, 1924
    Described the monosynaptic stretch reflex using decerebrate cats.
  2. Hammond, 1955
    Human stretch reflex has two temporally separate components, LLR too quick to be voluntary.
  3. Marsden, Merton & Morton, 1976
    LLR partially corrects position in human flexor policis longus.
  4. Marsden, Merton & Morton, 1981
    Perturbations 50% corrected at low magnitude. At high magnitude reflex strength plateaus.
  5. Loo & McCloskey, 1985
    LLR stronger when participants told to resist. This occurs in simple tasks only.
  6. Doemges & Rack, 1992
    LLR stronger when maintaining position, not force.
  7. Kurtzer et al., 2008
    LLR different at shoulder depending on position of elbow.
  8. Rothwell, 1986
    LLR weaker if the stretch is expected, whether consciously (self administered) or unconsciously (signaled by CS).
  9. Bennet, 1994
    LLR stronger (Nyquist 'C' radius increases) as destination is reached, increasing gain when needed.
  10. Phillips, 1970
    Proposed transcortical loop based on neuroanatomical plausibility.
  11. Cheney & Fetz, 1984
    Identified in primate, the muscle controlled by some M1 neurones (spike triggered averaging). Stretched muscle and observed higher firing.
  12. Marsden et al., 1977, 1977
    19 out of 20 with dorsal column, area 3 or 4, or internal capsule lesions lacked the LLR.
  13. Matthews, Farmer & Ingram, 1990
    Klippel-Feil patients show bilateral LLRs in hand muscle.
  14. Palmer & Ashby, 1992
    TMS revealed transcortical LLR in flexor pollicis longus.
  15. Petersen et al., 1998
    TMS revealed transcortical LLR in ankle flexors.
  16. Lewis et al., 2004
    TMS revealed transcortical LLR in wrist flexors (not extensors).
  17. Krutky et al., 2004
    TMS revealed transcortical LLR in biceps.
  18. Mrachacz-Kersting et al., 2006
    TMS revealed transcortical LLR in quadriceps.
  19. Ghez & Shinoda, 1978
    LLR in decerebrate cat proximal muscle.
  20. Miller & Brooks, 1981
    Monkey proximal muscle LLR resists brain lesions and brain cooling.
  21. Thilmann et al., 1991
    Huntingdon's patients lack proximal LLR (not distal).
  22. Fellows et al., 1996
    Klippel-Feil patients lack bilateral LLR in biceps.
  23. Soteropoulos et al., 2012
    Reticular formation at ponto-medullary junction cells spike during LLR.
  24. Matthews, 1984
    Vibration of flexor pollicis longus only induces SLR.
  25. Matthews, 1989
    Ulnar nerve F wave slowed by cooling to the same degree as hand muscle stretch LLR, so both fast primary afferents.
  26. Cody, 1987
    Ischaemia of hand impairs SLR, not LLR, from arm muscle controlling hand.
  27. Grey, 2001
    MLR (relative to SLR) in human soleus muscle, doesn't depend on stretch velocity, resists ischaemia, delayed by cooling & tizanidine sensitive.
  28. Lourenco, 2006
    Two LLRs in human wrist flexors, earlier is tizanidine sensitive & delayed by cooling.
  29. Jenner & Stephens, 1982
    Stimulated digital nerves (cutaneous only) and observed 1st dorsal interosseus SLR and LLR. LLR impaired in dorsal column or motor cortex lesion patients.
  30. Picard & Smith, 1992
    Area 4 cells responsive to cutaneous stimulation fire during object slip more than those sensitive to stretch.
  31. Matthews & Miles, 1988
    LLR in human hand muscles abolished when muscles disengaged despite cutaneous stimulation.
  32. Hagbarth et al., 1981
    Percutaneous microneurography recording of primary afferents reveals activity volleys as muscle oscillates.
  33. Noth et al., 1984
    Nyquist 'C' minima at 4Hz. Corresponds to reflex at 50ms.
  34. Matthews, 1993
    At 20Hz stretches the LLR and SLR are in anti-phase and cancel each other out.