med vocab ch 12-13.txt

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med vocab ch 12-13.txt
2013-10-26 19:03:53

chapter 12-13
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  1. Central nervous system
    • (CNS)
    • The brain and spinal cord
  2. Brain
    Part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
  3. Brainstem
    Connects the brain the spinal cord, assists in breathing, heart rhythm, vision & consciousness
  4. Pons
    Part of the brainstem that connects the brain & the spinal cord, controls sensory processes
  5. Medulla oblongata
    Part of the brainstem that connects the brain & the spinal cord, controls respiration & heartbeat
  6. Midbrain
    • (mesencephalon)
    • Part of the brainstem that connects the brainstem to the cerebellum, controls sensory processes
  7. Cerebellum (hindbrain)
    Posterior portion of the brain that coordinates the voluntary muscles & maintains balance & muscle tone
  8. Cerebrum
    Largest & uppermost portion of the brain, divided into right & left halves (called cerebral hemispheres) & subdivided into lobes
  9. Cerebral cortex
    Outer layer of the cerebrum, controls higher mental function
  10. Frtonal lobe
    Front portion of the cerebrum that controls higher mental function
  11. Gyrus
    Raised convolution on the surface of the cerebrum
  12. Occipital lobe
    Back portion of the cerebrum that controls vision
  13. Parietal lobe
    Middle-top portion of the cerebrum involved in perception of touch, temperature & pain
  14. Sulcus
    Groove/fissure on the surface of the brain
  15. Temporal lobe
    Portion of the cerebrum below the frontal lobe, controls senses of hearing & smell as well as memory, emotion, speech & behavior
  16. Diencephalon
    • (hypophysis)
    • Area deep within the brain that contains the thalamus, hypothalamus & pituitary gland, responsible for directing sensory information to the cortex
  17. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • (CSF)
    • Colorless fluid that circulates in & around the brain & spinal cord, acts as a protector & transports nutrients
  18. Meninges
    Membranous covering of the brain & spinal cord
  19. Arachnoid
    Delicate fibrous membrane forming the middle layer of the meninges
  20. Dura mater
    Strong fibrous membrane forming the middle layer of the meninges
  21. Pia mater
    Thin inner layer of the meninges that attaches directly to the brain & spinal cord
  22. Spinal cord
    Portion of the central nervous system contained in the spinal or vertebral canal, responsible for nerve conduction to & from the brain & body
  23. Ventricle
    One of four interconnected cavities within the brain that secreted cerebrospinal fluid
  24. Peripheral nervous system
    Part of the nervous system external to the brain & spinal cord that consists of all other nerves throughout the body
  25. Nerve
    Whitish cordlike structure that transmits stimuli from the central nervous system to another area of the body or from the body to the central nervous system
  26. Ganglion
    Group of nerve cell bodies located along the pathway of a nerve
  27. Neuroglia
    • (Glia)
    • Cells that support & protect nervous tissue
  28. Neuron
    Nerve cells, cells that make up the basic structure of the nervous system & conduct impulses
  29. Cranial nerves
    The 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the cranium
  30. Spinal nerves
    The 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine
  31. Cerebell/o
    Cerebellum (little brain)
  32. Cerebr/o
    Brina, cerebrum
  33. Cortic/o
    Cortex (cerebral cortex)
  34. Crani/o
    Cranium, skull
  35. Dur/o
    Hard, dura mater
  36. Encephala/o
    Entire brain
  37. Esthesi/o
    Sensation, perception
  38. Gangli/o, ganglion/o
  39. Gli/o
    Glue, neuroglia
  40. Mening/o, meningi/o
  41. Myel/o
    Bone marrow, spinal cord
  42. Narc/o
    Stupor, numbness, sleep
  43. Neuro/o
  44. Phas/o
  45. Poli/o
  46. Radicul/o
    Nerve root
  47. Somn/o, somn/i
  48. Spin/o
  49. Spondyl/o, vertebr/o
  50. Thalam/o
  51. Ventricul/o
  52. Anxi/o
    Fear, worry
  53. Hallucin/o
    To wander in one's mind
  54. Hypn/o
    Sleep, hypnosis
  55. Ment/o, phych/o, phren/o
    Mind, mental
  56. Schiz/o
  57. Soci/o
    Social, society
  58. Thym/i, thym/o
    Mind, soul, emotion
  59. Epi-
    On, following
  60. Hemi-
  61. Hyper-
    Above, excessive
  62. Hypo-
    Below, deficient
  63. Para-
  64. Poly-
    Many, much
  65. Quadri-
  66. Bi-
    Two, twice
  67. De-
    Away from, cessation, without
  68. Eu-
    Good, normal
  69. -al,-ar
    Pertaining to
  70. -gram
    Record, recording
  71. -ia
    Condition of
  72. -ictal, lepsy
  73. -logist
    One who secializes in
  74. -paresis
    Parital or incomplete paralysis
  75. -phrenia
    The mind
  76. -plegia
  77. -tomy
  78. -iatrist
    One who specializes in
  79. -mania
    Excited state, obsession
  80. -philia, -phile
    Attraction for
  81. -phobia
    Abnormal fear, aversion to, sensitivity to
  82. Bipolar
    Having two ends or extremes
  83. Cerebral
    Pt cerebrum
  84. Cerebellar
    Pt cerebellum
  85. Cranial
    Pt cranium/skull
  86. Dural
    Pt dura mater
  87. Epidural
    Pt on or outside hte dura mater
  88. Glial
    Pt glia
  89. Ictal
    Pt caused by a stroke/seizure
  90. Ischemic
    Pt lack of blood flow
  91. Meningeal
    Pt meninges
  92. Mental
    Pt mind
  93. Neural
    Pt nerves or any structure consisting of nerves
  94. Postictal
    Pt following a seizure
  95. Radicular
    Pt root (nerve)
  96. Subdural
    Pt below dura mater
  97. Alzheimer's disease
    A degenerative progressive brain disease that results in impairment of language function, inability to calculate & deterioration of judgement
  98. Amnesia
    Loss of long-term memory
  99. Amyotrophic laterol sclerosis
    • ALS
    • Lou Gehrig disease
    • Condition marked by a progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells, leads to muscle weakness & eventually paralysis & death
  100. Aphasia
    Impaired comprehension or formulation of speech, reading, or writing caused by damage to the brain
  101. Ataxia
    Lack of muscle coordination, may involve the limbs, head or trunk
  102. Bell palsy
    Paralysis of facial muscles, often on one side of the face, caused by a dysfunction of a cranial nerve
  103. Cerebral aneurysm
    Widening of a blood vessel in the brain, usually due to a weakness in the wall of the artery
  104. Cerebral palsy (CP)
    Defect of motor power & coordination related to damage to the brain that occurred prenatally, or in the first 3 yrs of life
  105. Cerebral thrombosis
    Clot within a blood vessel of the brain
  106. Cerebrovascular accident
    Damage to the brain caused by an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain
  107. Coma
    A state of profound unconsciousness
  108. Concussion
    Injury to the brain resulting from a blow or violent shaking
  109. Disorientation
    Loss of sense of familiarity with one's surrounding (time, place & self)
  110. Encephalitis
    Inflammation of the entire brain
  111. Epilepsy
    Disorder of the central nervous system that is usually characterized by seizure activity & some alteration of consciousness
  112. Herpes zoster (shingles)
    Painful viral infection that affects the peripheral nerves & causes an eruption of blisters that follows the course of the affected nerves, closely related to varicella
  113. Incoherence
    Confusion, denoting unconnected speech or thoughts
  114. Lethargy
    A feeling of sluggishness or stupor
  115. Hemiparesis
    Partial or incomplete paralysis affecting one side of the body
  116. Hydrocephalus
    A condition involving increased cerebrospinal fluid, leads to enlargement of the cerebral ventricles & an increase in intracranial pressure, may cause cranial enlargement
  117. Migraine
    Recurrent syndrome characterized by unilateral head pain, vertigo, nausea & sensitivity to light
  118. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
    Common disorder of the central nervous system that causes sclerotic patches (plaques) in the brain & spinal cord, symptoms may include visual loss, weakness, paresthesisas, bladder abnormalities & mood alterations
  119. Narcolepsy
    • (Excessive sleep disorder)
    • Neurologic condition consisting of recurring episodes of sleep during the day & often disrupted nocturnal sleep
  120. Neuralgia
    Pain in a nerve
  121. Neuritis
    Inflammation of nerve
  122. Neuropathy
    Disease of nerves
  123. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of the legs & lower part of the body
  124. Paresthesia
    An abnormal sensation, such as numbness, tingling or pins & needles
  125. Parkinsonism
    • Parkinson's Disease
    • Degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills & speech, most notably characterized by tremors of the limbs
  126. Poliomyelitis
    Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  127. Polyneuritis
    Inflammation of a number of peripheral nerves
  128. Radiculitis
    Inflammation of the nerve roots
  129. Radiculopathy
    Disease of the nerve roots
  130. Seizure
    Violent spasm or series of jerky movements of the face, trunk or limbs
  131. Sleep apnea
    Disorder marked by interruptions of breathing during sleep
  132. Stupor
    State of impaired consciousness in which the person shows a marked reduction in reactivity to environmental stimuli
  133. Subdural hematoma
    A collection of blood below the dura mater resulting from a broken blood vessel, usually due to trauma
  134. Syncope
    • Syncopal episode
    • Fainting or an episode of fainting, usually due to lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
  135. Tourette's syndrome
    Tic disorder characterized by intermittent motor & vocal manifestations that begins in childhood
  136. Transient ischemic attach
    • (TIA)
    • Sudden, brief & temporary cerebral dysfunction usually caused by interruption of blood flow to the brain
  137. Anxiety
    Feeling of fear, worry uneasiness or dread
  138. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • (ADHD)
    • Condition that begins in childhood & is characterized by short attention span, rapid boredom, impulsive behavior & hyperactivity
  139. Agoraphobia
    Type of mental disorder with an irrational fear of leaving home & going out into the open, usually associated with panic attacks
  140. Autism
    Disorder of unknown cause consisting of self-absorption, withdrawal of social contracts, repetitive movements & other mannerisms, severity varies from mild (functional) to severe (catatonic)
  141. Bipolar disorder
    Disorder characterized by the occurrence of alternating periods of euphoria (mania) & depression
  142. Catatonia
    A phase of schizophrenia in which the patient is unresponsive, sometimes remaining in a fixed position without moving or talking
  143. Claustrophobia
    Fear of being shut in or enclosed
  144. Compulsion
    Uncontrollable impulses to perform an act, often repetitively, to relieve anxiety, if the compulsive act is prevented, the anxiety becomes fully manifested
  145. Delirium
    An altered state with confusion, distractibility, hallucinations & over activity caused by medication or a metabolic disorder
  146. Delusion
    A false belief or decision that is strongly held & remains unchanged regardless of any outside factors
  147. Dementia
    Usually progressive loss of cognitive & intellectual functions , without impairment of perception or consciousness, most commonly associated with structural brain disease
  148. Depression
    Mental state characterized by profound feelings of sadness, emptiness, hopelessness & lack of interest or pleasure in activities
  149. Euphoria
    An exaggerated feeling of well-being
  150. Hallucination
    False perception unrelated to reality or external stimuli, can be visual, auditory or related to other senses
  151. Mania
    Emotional disorder characterized by euphoria or irritability as well as rapid speech, decreased need for sleep, distractibility & poor judgment, usually occurs in bipolar disorder
  152. Neurosis
    Psychological or behavioral disorder characterized by excessive anxiety
  153. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
    • (OCD)
    • Condition associated with recurrent & intrusive thoughts, images & repetitive behaviors performed to relieve anxiety
  154. Panic disorder
    Form of anxiety disorder marked by episodes of intense fear of social or personal situations
  155. Paranoia
    Mental state characterized by jealousy, delusions of persecution, or perceptions of threat or harm
  156. Phobia
    Extreme persistent fear of a specific object or situation
  157. Post-tramautic Stress Disorder
    • (PTSD)
    • Persistent emotional disturbances that follow exposure to life-threatening catastrophic events such as trauma, abuse, natural disasters & war
  158. Psychosis
    Mental disorder extreme enough to cause gross misperception of reality with delusions & hallucinations
  159. Schizophrenia
    Common type of psychosis, characterized by abnormalities in perception, content of thought, hallucinations & delusions & withdrawn or bizarre behavior
  160. Babinski sign
    Toe movement elicited by manipulation in a neurologic test performed on the sole of the foot to indicate injury to the brain or spinal nerves
  161. Cerebral angiography
    Radiography of blood vessels in the brain after injection of radiopaque contrast material
  162. Deep tendon reflex
    • (DTR)
    • Evaluation of the response of a muscle to stimuli to provide info on the integrity of the CNS & PNS, generally decreased reflexes indicate a problem with the PNS & lively or exaggerated reflexes indicate problem with the CNS
  163. Electroencephalogram
    • (EEG)
    • Electrical recording of activity of the brain
  164. Evoked potential studies
    Diagnostic tests that use an EEG to record changes in brain waves during various stimuli
  165. Glasgow coma scale
    A neurologic scale used to assess level of consciousness
  166. Lumbar puncture
    • (LP)
    • Process of inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spine to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for analysis
  167. Magnetic resonance imaging
    • (MRI)
    • Imaging technique that uses magnetic fields & radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures, often used for diagnosing soft tissue
  168. Myelogram
    Radiographic contrast study of the spinal subarachnoid space & its contents
  169. Polysomnography
    Monitoring & recording of normal/abnormal activity during sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
  170. Positron emission tomography
    • (PET)
    • A nuclear medicine procedure that shows blood flow in the brain that can correspond to various brain activity
  171. Craniectomy
    Excision of part of the cranium to access the brain
  172. Craniotomy
    Incision into the skull to access the brain
  173. Ganglionectomy
    Excision of a ganglion
  174. Laminectomy
    Excision of the thin plate of the vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal cord
  175. Neurolysis
    Separation of a nerve from inflammatory adhesions
  176. Neuroplasty
    Surgical repair of the nerves
  177. Psychotherapy
    General term for an interaction in which a trained mental health professional tries to help a patient resolve emotional & mental distress
  178. Radicotomy
    • (Rhizotomy)
    • Incision into the spinal nerve roots to relieve pain/spastic paralysis
  179. Analgesic
    Drug that relieves pain
  180. Anthesthetic
    Compound that provides temporary loss of sensation
  181. Antianxiety agent
    • (Anxiolytic)
    • Category of drugs used to treat anxiety without causing excessive sedation
  182. Anticonvulsant
    Drug that prevents/arrests seizures
  183. Antidepressant
    Drug used to treat depression
  184. Anti-inflammatory
    Drug that reduces inflammation
  185. Epidural injection
    SubQ/IM injection of an analgesic into the epidural space
  186. Hypnotic
    Drug that promotes sleep
  187. Neuroleptic
    Class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia
  188. Psychotropic
    Drug used to treat mental illnesses
  189. Sedative
    Drug that quiets nervous excitement
  190. Electroencephalography Technician
    Person who is trained to set up & perform EEGs
  191. Neurology
    Medical specialty concerned with the study & treatment of conditions involving the nervous system
  192. Neurologist
    Physician who specializes in neurology
  193. Psychiatry
    Medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis & treatment of mental disorders as practiced by a licensed medical doctor who may prescribe meds
  194. Psychiatrist
    Physician who specializes in psychiatry
  195. Psychology
    Medical specialty concerned with the study & treatment of mental processes, behaviors & abnormal/irregular mood disorders as practiced by a trained professional who is not a medical doctor & is not authorized to prescribe meds
  196. Psychologist
    One who specializes in psychology
  197. Orbit
    Bony cavity of the skull that encases the eye
  198. Conjuctiva
    Mucous membrane that lines the eyelids & outer surface of the eyeball
  199. Lacrimal glands
    Glands that secrete tears
  200. Lacrimal ducts
    Channels that carry tears to the eye
  201. Nasolacrimal ducts
    Ducts that carry tears from the lacrimal glands to the nose
  202. Tarsal glands
    • (Meibomian glands)
    • Oil glands along the edges of the eyelids that lubricate the eye
  203. Sclera
    Tough outer layer of the eye (white) that extends from cornea to optic nerve
  204. Cornea
    Transparent outer covering of the anterior portion of eye
  205. Aqueous humor
    Watery fluid that fills anterior chamber of the eye
  206. Iris
    Colored muscular part of the eye located behind the cornea that allows light to pass through
  207. Pupil
    Opening in middle of iris through which light passes
  208. Lens
    Transparent structure behind pupil that bends & focuses light rays
  209. Choroid
    Middle layer of the eye that contains blood vessels
  210. Vitreous humor
    Jellylike fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye
  211. Retia
    Innermost layer of the eye that contains visual receptors
  212. Optic nerve
    Nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain to provide the sense of sight
  213. Fundus
    Posterior portion of the interior of the eyeball, visible through the ophthalmoscope
  214. Blephar/o
  215. Conjunctiv/o
  216. Corne/o
  217. Cry/o
  218. Dacry/o, lacrim/o
    Tears or tear ducts
  219. Dipl/o
    Double, two
  220. Ir/o, irid/o
  221. Kerat/o
  222. ocul/o, ophthalm/o
  223. Opt/o
    Vision, eye
  224. Phot/o
  225. Presby/o
    Related to aging
  226. Pupil/o, cor/e, cor/o
  227. Retin/o
  228. Scler/o
    Hard, sclera
  229. Ton/o
    Tension, pressure
  230. Bi-, bin-
    Two, twice
  231. -ectasia, -ectasis
    Dilation, stretching
  232. -lysis
    Destruction, breakdown, separation
  233. -malacia
  234. -meter
    Instrument for measuring
  235. -metry
    Measurement of
  236. -oia, -opsia
  237. -pexy
    Surgical fixation
  238. -phobia
    Abnormal fear, aversion to, sensitivity to
  239. -plasty
    Surgical repair, reconstruction
  240. -plegia
  241. -ptosis
    Prolapse, drooping, sagging
  242. -rrhea
    Flow, discharge
  243. -scopy
    Process of examining, examination
  244. -spasm
    Involuntary movement
  245. -trophia
    To turn
  246. Accomodation
    Ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
  247. Binocular
    Pt both eyes
  248. Blepharal
    Pt eyelid
  249. Conjunctival
    Pt conjunctiva
  250. Corneal
    Pt cornea
  251. Intraocular
    Within/inside eye
  252. Iridal, iridial
    Pt iris
  253. Lacrimal
    Pt tears
  254. Ocular, ophthalmic
    Pt eye
  255. Optic
    Pt vision
  256. Pupillary
    Pt pupil
  257. Retinal
    Pt retina
  258. Scleral
    Pt sclera
  259. Amblyopia
    Poor vision, usually in only one eye, caused by abnormal development of visual areas, also known as "lazy eye"
  260. Astigmatism
    Distorted, blurry vision caused by abnormal curvature of the cornea or lens
  261. Blepharitis
    Inflammation of the eyelid
  262. Blepharoptosis
    Drooping of the eyelids, also shortened to ptosis
  263. Blepharospasm
    Contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, which causes uncontrolled blinking
  264. Cataract
    Clouding of the lens of the eye, which causes poor vision
  265. Chalazion
    • (Meibomian cyst)
    • Obstruction of an oil gland in the eye
  266. Color blindness
    Deficiency in distinguishing some colors
  267. Conjunctivitis
    Highly contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva (pinkeye)
  268. Dacryoadenitis
    Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
  269. Dacryocystitis
    Inflammation of the lacrimal sac
  270. Dacryolith
    Stone in the lacrimal sac/ducts
  271. Dacryorrhea
    Excessive discharge of tears
  272. Detached retina
    Separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye, can be caused by injury, tumor or hemorrhage
  273. Diabetic retinopathy
    Degenerative changes of the retina caused by diabetes mellitus, may lead to blindness
  274. Diplopia
    Double vision
  275. Exophthalmos
    Abnormal protrusion of one/both eyeballs
  276. Glaucoma
    Group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic nerve
  277. Hordeolum
    Infection of an oil gland of the eyelid, commonly called a sty
  278. Hyperopia
  279. Iridomalacia
    Softening of the iris
  280. Iridoplegia
    Paralysis of the iris
  281. Iritis
    Inflammation of the iris
  282. Keratitis
    Inflammation of the cornea
  283. Keratomalacia
    Softening of the cornea, usually associated with severe vit A deficiency
  284. Macular degeneration
    Deterioration of the macula (central part of retina) causing impaired central vision, most commonly related to advancing age
  285. Myopia
  286. Nyctalopia
    Poor vision in reduced light or at night, commonly called night blindness
  287. Nystagmus
    Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eye
  288. Ophthalmalgia
    Pain in the eye
  289. Ophthalmia
    Condition of the eye characterized by severe conjunctivitis
  290. Ophthalmopathy
    Disease of the eye
  291. Ophthalmoplegia
    Paralysis of the eye muscle
  292. Photophobia
    Extreme sensitivity to light
  293. Presbyopia
    Impaired vision caused by old age
  294. Pterygium
    Growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea, usually associated with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
  295. Retinitis pigmentosa
    Hereditary progressive deterioration of the retina causing nyctalopia & impaired vision
  296. Retinopathy
    Any disease of the retina
  297. Scleritis
    Inflammation of the sclera
  298. Sclerocalacia
    Softening or thinning of the sclera
  299. Strabismus
    Condition of ocular misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
  300. Xerophthalmia
    Condition involving dry eyes
  301. Extraocular movement
    • (EOM)
    • Movement of the upper eyelids & eyeballs through use of the extra ocular muscles, assessed during clinical examination to screen for eye movement disorders
  302. Fluorescein angiography
    Visualization & photographic recording of the flow of an orange fluorescent dye through the blood vessels of the eye
  303. Keratometer
    Instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea
  304. Ophthalmoscope
    Instrument used for examining the interior of the eye through the pupil
  305. Ophthalmoscopy
    Use of ophthalmoscope to view interior of the eye
  306. Pupillometer
    Instrument for measuring the diameter of the pupil
  307. Pupillometry
    Measurement of the pupil
  308. Refraction
    Test using manual refractor to determine an exact vision prescription
  309. Snellen chart
    Chart containing symbols that is used in the testing of visual acuity
  310. Tonometer
    Instrument for measuring pressure within the eye
  311. Tonometry
    Use of the tonometer to measure intraocular pressure within the eye, done to diagnose glaucoma
  312. Retinoscopy
    Examination of the retina
  313. Visual acuity (VA) testing
    Testing for the sharpness of distant vision, usually with a Snellen chart, normal =20/20
  314. Visual field (VF) testing
    Assessment of the range visible to one eye without movement
  315. Blepharoplasty
    Surgical repair of the eyelid
  316. Cataract extraction
    Surgical removal of a cataract
  317. Cryoretinopexy
    Surgical fixation of a detached retina/retinal tear by using extreme cold to seal the tear
  318. Dacrocystotomy
    Incision into the tear sac
  319. Enucleation
    Removal of an eyeball
  320. Intraocular lens (IOL) implant
    Implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
  321. Iridectomy
    Excision of part of the iris
  322. Iridotomy
    Incision in the iris, usually with a laser, to allow drainage of aqueous humor in therapy for narrow-angle glaucoma
  323. Keratoplasty
    Surgical repair of the cornea, corneal transplantation
  324. Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
    • (LASIK)
    • Procedure that uses a laser to create a corneal flap & reshape corneal tissue, used to correct vision problems such as myopia, hyperopia & astigmatism
  325. Phacoemulsification
    Use of ultrasound to shatter & break up a cataract, followed by aspiration & removal
  326. Photorefractive keratectomy
    • (PRK)
    • Procedure using a laser to reshape the cornea to correct vision
  327. Retinal photocoagulation
    Repair of a retinal detachment or tear by using a laser beam to coagulate the tissue to allow a seal to form
  328. Scleral buckling
    Repair of a retinal detachment by attaching a band around the sclera to keep the retina from pulling away
  329. Sclerotomy
    Incision into the sclera
  330. Trabeculectomy
    Surgical procedure to create a drain to reduce pressure within the eye
  331. Vitrectomy
    Removal of all or part of the vitreous humor
  332. Corticosteroid
    Drug that reduces inflammation, used to treat swelling & itching of the eye
  333. Hypotonic
    Drug that relieves dry irritated eyes
  334. Miotic
    Drug that constricts pupil
  335. Mydriatic
    Drug that dilates pupil
  336. Prostaglandin
    Drug that relaxes muscles in eye's interior structure to allow better outflow of fluids
  337. Optician
    One who fills prescriptions for corrective lenses
  338. Optometry
    Medical specialty concerned with the measurement of vision & prescription of corrective treatment or lenses
  339. Optometrist
    One who practices optometry
  340. Ophthalmology
    Medical specialty concerned with study of eye, its diseases & refractive errors
  341. Ophthalmologist
    Physician who specializes in ophthalmology
  342. Auricle (pinna)
    External portion of the ear
  343. External auditory meatus (external auditory canal)
    Canal that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
  344. Cerumen
    Waxy substance created by glands of the external auditory meatus (earwax)
  345. Tympanic membrane
    • (TM)
    • Eardrum, a semitransparent membrane that vibrates to transmit sound waves to the ossicles, separates external auditory meatus from middle ear cavity
  346. Mastoid bone & cells
    Bone located behind the ear that is filled with air cavities & encloses the middle ear
  347. Pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube/auditory tube)
    Tubular channel that runs from middle ear cavity to the pharynx
  348. Auditory ossicles
    Middle ear bones contained in the tympanic cavity that transmit sound vibration
  349. Malleus
    Auditory ossicle shaped like a hammer/club
  350. Incus
    Auditory ossicle shaped like an anvil
  351. Stapes
    Auditory ossicle shaped like a stirrup
  352. Labyrinth
    Inner ear, which is made up of a series of semicircular canals, vestibule & cochlea
  353. Cochlea
    Snail-shaped organ that contains the organ of hearing
  354. Spiral organ (organ of corti)
    Receptor for hearing located within the cochlea, the organ of hearing
  355. Vestibule
    Anatomic chamber such as that found in the inner ear
  356. Semicircular canals & ducts
    Small tubes in the labyrinth that contain receptors that assist the body in maintaining balance
  357. Acous/o
    Hearing, sound
  358. Audi/o
  359. Aur/i, aur/o, ot/o
  360. Cochle/o
  361. Labyrinth/o
    Labyrinth, inner ear
  362. Mastoid/o
    Mastoid bone
  363. Myring/o, tympan/o
    Tympanic membrane, eardrum
  364. Scler/o
    Hard, sclera
  365. Staped/o
  366. Vestibule/o
  367. Dys-
    Painful, difficult, abnormal
  368. -acousis, -acusis
  369. -algia
  370. -ectomy
    Excision, surgical removal
  371. -stomy
    Surgical opening
  372. Acousting
    Pt hearing/sound
  373. Auditory
    Pt hearing
  374. Aural (otic)
    Pt ear
  375. Cochlear
    Pt cochlea
  376. Labyrinthine
    Pt labyrinth or inner ear
  377. Mastoid
    Pt mastoid bone & cells
  378. Tympanic
    Pt tympanic membrane or tympanic cavity
  379. Vestibular
    Pt vestibule
  380. Acoustic neuroma
    Benign tumor that develops on the acoustic nerve (8th cranial nerve that connects the ear to brain) & causes hearing loss
  381. Cerumen impaction
    Excessive buildup of earwax
  382. Cholesteatoma
    Cyst like tumor of skin in middle ear behind tympanic membrane usually caused by chronic otitis media
  383. Conductive hearing loss
    Hearing loss due to obstruction or lesion in outer &/or middle ear
  384. Dysacousia
    Impairment of hearing involving difficulty in processing of sound
  385. Labyrinthitis
    Inflammation of the inner ear
  386. Mastoiditis
    Inflammation of the mastoid bone
  387. Meniere disease/syndrome
    Chronic condition of inner ear characterized by dizziness, initus, hearing loss & sensation of pressure in the ear
  388. Myringitis
    Inflammation of the tympanic membrane
  389. Otalgia
    Pain in the ear
  390. Otitis externa (OE)
    Inflammation of the external auditory meatus, also known as "swimmer's ear"
  391. Otitis media (OM)
    Inflammation of the middle ear
  392. Otomycosis
    Fungal infection in the ear
  393. Otopyorrhea
    Discharge of pus from the ear
  394. Otoclearosis
    Hardening of the ossicles, particularly in stapes
  395. Presbycusis
    Impaired hearing caused by old age
  396. Sensorineural hearing loss
    Hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve
  397. Tinnitus
    Noises in the ear, such as ringing, buzzing or humming
  398. Tympanic membrane perforation
    Hole in or rupture of eardrum
  399. Vertigo
    Spinning sensation, commonly known as dizziness
  400. Audiogram
    Record of hearing (presented in graph form)
  401. Audiometer
    Instrument for measuring hearing
  402. Audiometry
    Measurement of hearing
  403. Decibel (dB)
    Unit for expressing the intensity of sound
  404. Electronystagmography (ENG)
    Recording of eye movements in response to electrical impulses to diagnose balance problems
  405. Hertz (Hz)
    Unit of measure of frequency or pitch of sound
  406. Otoscope
    Instrument for examining the ear
  407. Otoscopy
    Use of an otoscope to examine the external auditory canal & tympanic membrane
  408. Tympanogram
    Record of middle ear function (presented in graph form)
  409. Tympanometer
    Instrument for measuring middle ear function
  410. Tympanometry
    Measurement of middle ear function
  411. Cochlear implant
    Electronic device implanted in cochlea to stimulate the auditory nerve & provide hearing sensations for the profoundly deaf
  412. Ear lavage
    Irrigation of the ear to remove cerumen buildup
  413. Labyrinthectomy
    Excision of part of the labyrinth
  414. Mastoidectomy
    Excision of the mastoid bone
  415. Mastoidotomy
    Incision of the mastoid bone
  416. Myringotomy (tympanostomy)
    Surgical repair of external ear
  417. Otoplasty
    Surgical repair of external ear
  418. Stapedectomy
    Removal of tapes & replacement with a prosthesis, done to correct hearing loss from otosclerosis
  419. Tympanoplasty
    Surgical repair of tympanic membrane &/or middle ear
  420. Tympanostomy tube placement
    Placement of tube in tympanic membrane to relieve symptoms caused by fluid buildup
  421. Antibiotic
    Drug that acts against susceptible microorganisms, used to treat otitis media & other ear diseases caused by bacteria
  422. Ceruminolytic
    Substance instilled into the external auditory canal to soften earwax
  423. Otic
    Any medication that can be instilled into the ear drop by drop
  424. Audiology
    Medical specialty concerned with the study & treatment of hearing disorders & fitting of hearing aids
  425. Audiologist
    One who specializes in audiology
  426. Otology
    Medical specialty concerned with the study of ears & treatment of ear disease
  427. Otologist
    Physician specializes in otology
  428. Otorhinolaryngology
    Medical specialty concerned with diseases of the ear, nose & throat
  429. Otorhinolaryngologist
    Physician specializing in otorhinolaryngology